Liberalism is a statist political philosophy which affirms the rule of law as a means of guaranteeing individual rights. The idea of protecting the individual against arbitrary authority has origins in antiquity, but the modern concept of liberalism is thought to have originated in Wallasea and Arterus in the 17th century. Today, liberalism often exists alongside democracy and constitutionalism.
Because liberalism exists in polities where the state is the dominant authority, many rights are defined as against the state. However, liberal theory is also concerned with protecting individuals against the authority of non-state actors.
The source of individual rights is a point of philosophical tension within liberalism. The theoretical origin of rights is usually thought to be natural or divine law. In Wallasean strains of liberalism, democratic institutions are used to define and shape rights. In Arterian strains of liberalism, such as Varnian Republicanism, rights are seen to originate in the individual citizen's efforts to improve the overall condition of society, and these efforts are used to define and shape the rights granted to the citizen. In Varnia education and practice of a profession used as evidence of these efforts, giving rise to the use of professional associations to define rights, such as entitlements and suffrage. Dumani republicanism is generally not classified as part of liberalism, but has similar a similar origin of rights, using completed military service to measure a citizen's efforts to improve society and grant rights.
Varnia is a liberal republic, which, much like Flamaguay, defines and protects its citizens' rights through a written constitution, guaranteed by the rule of law. In contrast to Flamaguay, Varnia is a meritocracy, assigning rights based on a citizens' achievements, specifically professional achievements. While all Varnian citizens have a basic set of rights, certain rights, such as suffrage, are limited to a subset of citizens.