|Motto: Oswin og den rettferdige sak
(Oswin and the just cause)
Regenmark in Arterus.
|Official languages||Varnian, Fantasian|
|Recognised regional languages||Various Wolohan|
|Ethnic groups||Varnian, Fantasian (84%), Wolohannic (7%), Other (9%)|
|•||Right of Petition||1814|
42,606 sq mi
|•||2018 estimate||20 million|
|Currency||Regenmark Thaler (RMT)|
|Drives on the||right|
|Laws and Politics|
Regenmark (/raygənmark/, REY-gun-mark) is an island country in Arterus. Located on the west coast of the continent, Regenmark sits in the Leonine Sea, and is the most north-westerly inhabited part of the world. Settled by colonists from Varnia and Fanta, the name Regenmark means "rain march", a reference to its place as a borderland; both the settlers and native peoples believed that Regenmark was the "edge of the world." As an archipelago, Regenmark comprises 1,670 islands and is divided into 15 provinces known as counties (fylke or grafschaft). The total land area of the country is 110,350 sq-km, making it the smallest nation-state in the world by land area.
Regenmark has been inhabited since the late Middle Paleolithic era, for at least 100,000 years, but there is little archeological knowledge about the first inhabitants; their language does not survive and no written work was ever produced about them. Wolohannic peoples arrived approximately 1,000 years ago, wiping out the first settlers and taking the island over until eastern-Arterusian settlers began to arrive in the 17th-century. Fantasian and Varnian colonists continued building settlements in the region, defeating the natives with gunpowder, and trading in fish, furs, and later, silver. During the Varnian revolution, elements of the Varnian royal family fled to Regenmark and set up a government-in-exile, taking over the Fantasian colonies in a brief war. Since its 1811 Constitution, Regenmark has been in a state of armed neutrality.
The Varnian royal family fled to Regenmark in 1810, and since that time, Regenmark has been an elective monarchy. Members of the Regener nobility with the hereditary title of Elector elect a member of the nobility to be crowned as King, who reigns until he dies. The Monarch appoints a cabinet government which runs the country's executive and appoints the judiciary. Individual counties elect their own governments, through a non-party parliamentary system, in which the franchise is restricted to property-owners only, with one vote allowed per household. The Regenmark Oswinian Church is the national religion, enshrined in the constitution, and all citizens of Regenmark must attend Church services monthly by law. Regenmark uses a customary law system with Norse law as the country's legal system.
The country's PPP GDP was $935 billion in 2018 ($46,750 per capita), making Regenmark one of the wealthiest countries per capita in the world. Although economic growth was based on extraction during the 19th-century, with fishing, mining and logging being key industries, after the Great War Regenmark began to industrialise. An economic boom in the 1950s, spurred on by increased global demand for raw materials, brought the country to high income status. Economic stability, property rights, and a strong research and development sector have helped Regenmark to grow and become a major producer of high-tech goods. In the 21st-century, Regenmark has become a tourist destination. A period of hardship known as the difficult century has produced what Regener sociologists describe as a resilient society.
Regenmark is a member of the Reims Agreement. It has cordial relations with the rest of the world, but endures occasional standoffs with the Wolohannic Confederation regarding sea borders, economic exclusion zones, and the treatment of ethnic-Wolohannic people inside Regenmark. However, these confrontations have never escalated to open war. Regenmark was neutral during the Great War.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport and communication
- 7 Healthcare
- 8 Education
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Culture
- 11 See also
The first Fantasian and Varnian settlers did not have a name for the island group as a whole, instead simply referring to the relevant counties. The term Regenmark, literally "rain border area", came into use during the 18th-century, as the whole archipelago was settled. By the time Regenmark appeared in the 1811 Constitution, it was in common use for the Varnian colonies. However, it was not until unification in 1861 that Regenmark was used to refer to the whole island. Wolohannic peoples traditionally called the island Red-fish-place (ᐊᐅᐸᖅᑐᖅᐃᖃᓗᒃᓄᓇ) for its salmon and this is occasionally in use today, especially in Wolohannic media, which might also refer to it as Lohimaa (salmon country). In some parts of Wallasea, especially Quiberon, Regenmark is called Finistère.
The first people who lived in Regenmark began life there at least 100,000 years ago; the oldest archaeological discoveries date human residence on the islands to 93,000 years ago. Little is known about these people. It is believed they had a Pantheon that worshipped fish and the ocean, and archaeologists have discovered statues of fish and people by the ocean, dating to at least 3,000 years ago, and cave paintings that depict similar fish-deities from at least 10,000 years ago. The purpose of these monuments, and their role in prehistoric culture, is totally unknown.
Although the Regenmark Archaeological Bureau (Regenmark Arkeologisk Byrå, RAB) has studied the pre-historic cultures and people of Regenmark since 1879, in an attempt to find out what kind of people lived on the islands before the Wolohannic arrival, little information has been discovered. It appears the native people were hunter-gatherers, living on fishing and gathering. Archaeologists speculate they must have been highly religious and spent much of their surplus labour on the construction of their monuments. As of 2016, no metal tools have been discovered on Regenmark from the prehistoric era. No remnants of this culture's language or habits remain.
In 2001, the chief of the RAB, Lars Erikson, claimed on national television that it is "unlikely that any further information about the pre-historic people of this country will ever be uncovered."
The first Wolohannic peoples arrived on the islands around 1,000 years ago, arriving on canoes. They established trading posts and settlements, and with metal tools and weapons, were able to conquer the island within at least 50 years. The Wolohannic settlers, either through genocide or inter-marriage, were able to breed out the native culture. Wolohannic settlers did not keep records, and there are only faint written accounts of the process of Wolohannic colonisation, but all agree that where the natives refused to convert to Wolohannic culture and religion, they were killed. Natives who refused to accede to Wolohannic supremacy were allegedly clubbed on the wheel or crushed by canoes. Historians estimate that before the Wolohannic arrival, the population of the whole islands was around 20,000, but within 100 years, independent pre-historic culture had totally disappeared.
By 1700, it is estimated that around 50,000 Wolohannic people lived on the islands. They were considered a backwater of the larger Wolohannic Confederation, and an undesirable place to emigrate. Nonetheless, there is archaeological evidence of trade with western Crataea, including Dumani coins from the period. The Wolohans who settled the islands permanently did not create a land registry or central government, instead choosing to live in small tribes, most of which survived on subsistence farming and fishing. Most of the Wolohannic people were not armed for foreign invasion. Fantasian explorer Lukas van Hendriks reported in 1690 that there was "not a single musket between all these people." Historians agree they were totally unprepared for the arrival of eastern Arterusians.
Between 1690 and 1770, both Varnia and Fanta launched colonial expeditions to acquire settlements in Regenmark. Where they came across Wolohannic peoples, they defeated them, and on occasion made them indentured labour. Over time, the eastern Arterusian colonies became prominent, housing many more migrants than there were Wolohannic natives; by 1800, there were more than 1 million Fantasians and Varnians in the islands, living in eighteen different colonial jurisdictions. There was little central regulation, and some Varnian colonial settlements were politically and legally closer to Fantasian settlements than they were to other Varnians. Borders, and trade rules, were fluid. The settlers made most of their income from the export of furs, silver and dyes.
In 1809, the Varnian revolution saw Varnia become a constitutional republic. The Varnian royal family fled, arriving in 1810 in the Varnian Regenmark colonies. There they proclaimed a successor state to Varnia, a claim which was only relinquished in 1999. The Monarchists asserted their control over the colony during the Restoration period; in 1861, during the Fantasian unification wars, Regenmark was unified under King Lars II. Regenmark was neutral during the Great War, although Regener ports occasionally saw individual combats when warships of belligerent nations refueled there and fought the warships of other belligerents.
Regenmark did not take part in the Great War, but profited from the sale of both raw materials and finished goods to the belligerents; Regener Fleet (RF) warships escorted Regener merchant marine to the mouth of the Axackal, but not further; more than 300 ships were lost in the conflict. Emerging from the war as one of the world's most healthy economies, Regener began to quickly industrialise, attracting scientists and engineers from Wallasea and Arterus with competitive salaries during the post-war depression. Most modern Regener institutions were created during the 1920s and 1930s. It was also during this period that Regenmark set up strict immigration controls on migrants from Crataea and western Arterus. The 1931 Final Agreement laid out the rights and obligations of the Wolohannic minority in respect to the national law. When the Wolohannic Confederation complained, Regener warships destroyed the Wolohannic navy in port.
Regenmark experienced a golden age from 1931 to 1961, during which economic growth massively increased, resulting in increased living standards; it was during this period that Regenmark became one of the world's high income countries, with a national income per capita equivalent to Quiberon by 1955 and Praetonia by 1959. Regenmark and its institutions remain very similar to the 1931-1961 period, with the Final Agreement unmodified and with no major constitutional adjustments since that time. Some analysts point to Regenmark's prohibition on political parties as a cause of national stability, but others criticise the country's authoritarian policies as having stifled freedom of expression. Regenmark has had successive year-on-year economic growth since 1961. The current Monarch, King Alexander I, has reigned since being elected in 1998.
Regenmark's total land area is around 42,606 sq mi, but about 70% of that area is either too mountainous or forested ,for agricultural, industrial, or commercial use. The remaining land area is therefore very highly populated. Regenmark's two main islands, known as Franz Becker's Island (Franz Becker Insel) and Crown Island (Kroneøya), contain 80% of the population. In addition, major islands by land area include Iskania, Langtsland, La Limite, Furu, Swordfish and Princess Emilija and Princess Elisabeth islands. There are a further 550 islands of varying types in Regenmark's sea borders. The names of Regenmark's major islands often correspond to the territorial borders of counties, and so are rarely used in common discourse.
The most northern point of Regenmark, La Limite, is 64.2°N, and the most southern point, the bottom of south island, is 55.3°N. However, including the most northern and southern Regenmark territories, excepting Continesia, the brackets change to 71°N and 51.9°N respectively.
The average annual temperature in North Island is 5°C (41°F), whereas in South Island it is 12 °C (54 °F). This is due in part to the Leonine trade wind diverting over north island and into the Wolohannic arctic.
The Constitution of Regenmark provides the legal base for the state, and outlines the ways in which the state government can make statute laws, known as writs (Varnian: stevning, Fantasian: Verfügung), describes the customary law of Regenmark as Norse law with influences from both Fanta and Varnia, defines the Counties of Regenmark and their County legislatures and executives, and mandates the Regenmark Oswinian Church as the state religion. Updates to the Constitution in 1920, 1931, and 1939 added sections detailing the relationship between the Wolohannic minority and the rest of the country. The national languages are Varnian, Fantasian and Fantasian Flemish, and state documents are printed in these languages only.
Regenmark is a semi-constitutional monarchy, ruled by a King (Varnian: Regensk Konge, Fantasian: Regener König) who is elected by a certain class of nobility known as Electors. The King reigns until he dies, at which point the Electors choose another King. The King appoints a Cabinet government, in which he sits, and over which he has ultimate veto. The King is responsible additionally for the appointment of state officials such as judges, military leaders, and diplomats. Regenmark does not have a central legislature. All central decisions are made by the Cabinet.
The Regenmark system dates back to the 1811 Constitution. After the arrival of the Varnian royal family, a period known as the Restoration saw members of the former Varnian royal government and the Regenmark Oswinian Church impose central control over the various Varnian and Fantasian colonies in Regenmark. Republican political leaders were exiled and Republican political movements forcibly disbanded. Attached to the 1811 Constitution is the 1814 Right of Petition which gives the people certain political rights, such as the right to trial by jury and habeus corpus, and the right to petition the Monarch on political matters. The Right of Petition also recognised the municipal assemblies as formal and legitimate law-making bodies.
Political parties are banned in Regenmark. Trades union are lawful for Regener citizens only, but they are prohibited from carrying out political activities. By law, trade unionists must have attempted arbitration with a labour court before going on strike.
The Counties of Regenmark (Varnian: fylke, Fantasian: grafschaft) are governed by County governments, usually headed by a member of the Regenmark nobility, who are all part of the elector class. The County government is responsible for appointing officials to oversee local government duties, and to implement the executive decisions of the central government. The County government rarely makes political decisions, and acts as an executive body between the central government and the municipalities.
Regenmark's 21 counties are further sub-divided into municipalities (Varnian: Amter, Fantasian: Ämter); there are a total of 152 municipalities in Regenmark. Municipalities hold public assemblies (Varnian: Amting, Fantasian: Amtgemeinde) to decide political questions. The municipal assembly comprises all the heads of household in the County, defined as the oldest male property-owner in a household. The County assembly meets once every three months and takes public, non-secret, majority-rule votes. Officials are obliged to follow the directives of the municipal assembly, but are otherwise selected by the civil service. The municipal assemblies have broad powers to change laws, including raising local taxes, but can not alter the Regenmark criminal law.
Regenmark's official diplomatic position has always been armed neutrality. Regenmark has close relations with Fanta and Quiberon. Although relations with Varnia were strained, in 1999 Regenmark released its claim to be the legitimate Varnian successor state, and relations have been steadily improving. Regenmark is a member of the Reims Agreement and also a signatory to most international laws on the sea and air. Regenmark has no external territories outside the borders of Regenmark. It maintains a 1.7 million square nautical mile economic exclusion zone in the Leonine Sea, enforced by the Regenmark Fleet.
Regenmark's external relations are managed by the Regenmark Foreign Service, a branch of central government. The Foreign Service maintains diplomatic missions in every country in the world, but missions are usually limited to providing consular services for Regener citizens and visa services for citizens of other countries wishing to enter Regenmark, as Regenmark rarely signs external or bilateral treaties. Regenmark offers visa-free travel to citizens of Fanta, Quiberon, Embrea and Dumanum, co-operating with exit visa rules where required to. Regenmark allows dual nationality for citizens of Fanta (since 1861) and Varnia (since 1999) only. Dual citizenship can be used to escape military service in Regenmark if a person has finished military service in their second country.
The armed forces, known as the Regenmark Forces (Varnian: Regensk Styrker, Fantasian: Regener Streitkräfte), comprises three parts; the Regener Army (Varnian: Regensk Forsvaret, Fantasian: Regener Wehrschaft), the Regener Navy, and the Regenmark Volunteer Observation Corps. Total military expenditures are $5,143 million, or 5.5% of GDP in 2018. In total, the armed forces commands 215,000 active service personnel, and can call upon more than 600,000 reservists. Regenmark purchases most of its military equipment from Fanta, Saratovia, or Prekonate. Several state-owned defence companies and institutions produce a small amount of military hardware for the Defence.
Regenmark practice universal national service for all males, with men entering the military roster at age 18 and typically leaving at the age of 50. Every male from age 20-30 spends one week on average per year deployed, and every male from 31-40 spends one weekend per year deployed. In times of emergency, the authorities can mobilise all 41-49 year old men into the Landsturm. Military service lasts two years, from 18 to 20. Reservists have been mobilised on several occasions, most notably the Wolohannic civil war. If invaded, Regenmark Law requires all men to resist invasion to any extent possible. Men who have finished military training keep their service rifles and ammunition at home.
Regenmark's economy is the 14th-smallest in the world, with a PPP GDP of $935 billion. However, per-capita, Regenmark is highly developed, with a development index score of 0.933 and a per-capita GDP of $46,750. The Regenmark operates a market economy, with a low regulation and tax regime. Government spending was 27.5% of GDP in 2017. Regenmark is a creditor nation, and has an AAA credit rating. Regenmark's economic growth accelerated in the 1920s and has continued until the present day. Foreign workers, chiefly from the Wolohannic Confederation but also from Crataea, constitute around 12% of the population and 19% of the workforce; there are approximately 1.8 million foreign workers in Regenmark as of 2018. Regenmark does not allow guest workers on low-skilled visas to attain permanent residency, although they can off-set their income taxes against remittances.
It is very easy to do business in Regenmark; the country is the highest on the ease of doing business index for all Reims agreement countries. Starting a business in Regenmark is simple and requires only a one-page form to be submitted to the Finance Office. The country ranks highly on global innovation and competitiveness indices. The country has low public debt at 45% of GDP. There is no capital gains or sales tax.
Despite many laissez-faire policies, state-owned enterprises play a significant role in the economy; Regenmark's government owns approximately 20% of the whole economy, including outright ownership of many large state companies as Crown corporations, including the national airline (Luftregen), post office, (Regenmark Post), oil and gas (Petrohorison), engineering and construction, (Regenswerke Gewerblich) and the country's sovereign wealth investor, Det Offentlige Fondets, which is the third largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. In addition to these state owned firms, Regenmark hosts many large financial concerns; these concerns are not closely regulated, but have to follow certain rules strictly enforced by the Regenmark Financial Controls Agency. Regenmark has significant foreign direct investment outflows as a result of Regener banks investing in Crataea, but also receives FDI inflows due to its stable political system and the ease of investment.
Regenmark provides public housing to its citizens. Houses, infrastructure, and public service buildings such as post offices, schools and libraries have a dual-function as bomb shelters. Civil defence is present in public life, including building codes. All places of work must have a bomb shelter nearby and drills must take place every financial quarter.
Sectors and trade
Regenmark's economy is comprised of four sectors; the primary sector, including fishing, (2% of GDP), the secondary sector, chiefly engineering, shipbuilding, precision goods and construction (29% of GDP), the tertiary sector, dominated by financial services and tourism (60% of GDP), and finally the growing quarternary sector, centred around research and development, design, and consulting, especially in Crataea and Veridis (9% of GDP). Regenmark's keystone industries which create significant cultural reference are whaling, engineering of various types, and product design.
Trade comprises 130% of GDP. Regenmark maintains a broadly laissez-faire attitude to trade, but does attempt to bolster exports by offering export credits to certain countries and by supporting exporters. Decades of an export-based trade policy have allowed Regenmark to accumulate large financial reserves. Regenmark's merchant marine, Regenmark Handelsmarine, comprises more than 14 million gross register tonnes and more than 700 vessels.
Regenmark is an oil and gas producer, with several large oil and gas fields in the northern Leonine Sea. Both crude and refined oil and gas accounted for 15% of Regenmark's exports in 2016. In addition to being an important export earner, large portions of Regenmark's oil and gas are bought by the state and placed into storage as the Emergency Fuel Reserve. The exact size of the Reserve is classified, but is estimated at 100 million barrels. Regenmark bans the use of petrol, forcing motorists to use diesel cars. Regenmark's mass transit system reserves the right to buy refined petrol from the Regener oil and gas fields and refineries for at-production prices.
Electricity is produced mainly by hydroelectric power, which meets more than 80% of Regenmark's domestic electric needs. The remainder is met by wind, tidal, and geothermal power. Regenmark's domestic electrical supply has come entirely from renewable sources since 2002, when the last coal power plant was closed. However, the state maintains several small oil and natural gas plants capable of adding to the national grid in an emergency.
Tourism has become a major part of the economy. Regenmark attracts tourists from all over the world, but most come from the countries with visa-free travel. Both nature tourism and urban tourism form an integral part of the Regenmark tourist industry. Through the Regenmark Cultural Office, the government heavily subsidises cultural activities; all museums and art galleries in Regenmark are free, and the opera and theatre are heavily subsidised. A lack of sales taxes and taxes on alcohol and luxury goods make Regenmark an attractive destination for all tourists. More than 11 million tourists visit Regenmark per year.
The Regenmark tourist agency (Visit Regenmark)'s slogan is "Regenmark: Home away from home." Tourists pay citizen prices for most events, including mountain hikes and exploring Regenmark's national parks; couples traveling on a honeymoon can upgrade to business class or first class for free on the national airline if they book far enough in advance, and Regenmark's roaming charges on the state telecommunications don't exceed what Regener citizens pay. Regenmark's healthcare system covers the immediate costs of foreigners on a tourist visa.
Transport and communication
Regenmark's geography has made transportation a central part of government policy for decades. An integrated national transport system connects the country with buses, trams, trains, water taxis and ferries all having a fixed price paid for with one transport card, which can also be used to pay tolls on highways. Regenmark's road network includes 400,000 miles of paved road, used by over 9 million registered vehicles. The rail network comprises 6,272 miles of track and around 1,200 passenger stations. In addition to road and rail, a large number of people use Regenmark's nationalised ferry transport system on a regular basis; ferry trips can range from short, 15-minute transits between islands to over-night services from one part of the country to the other. Many communities in Regenmark do not have easy road access, and ferries provide essential freight and goods.
Telecoms infrastructure is owned and maintained by the Regenmark Post Office, and leased out to private telecommunications companies at at-cost prices. Regenmark has the highest average internet speed in the world. More than 75% of Regenmark homes and businesses have access to fibre optic internet.