|Motto: Sebaliknya kebebasan dengan bahaya, daripada perbudakan dengan keselematan!
Rather liberty with jeopardy than slavery with safety!
|Anthem: Perajurit Tanah Air
Questaria the Brave
Geographic-political map of Questers
|Ethnic groups||Praetannic, Indian, Malay, Songian|
|Government||Common law polity (none)|
|•||Leader of the Malayan Federation||Abdul Sulung bin Roslan Mohammed Afiz|
|•||Company of Continental Freeholders formed||5th September 1802|
|•||Concord of the Races under the Law||May 1st 1851|
|•||Defender of the Faiths Proclaimed||May 1st, 2012|
3,891,275 sq mi
|•||2018 estimate||340 million (est.)|
148 (est.)/sq mi
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|•||Total||$6,650 billion (est.)|
|•||Per capita||$19,000 (est.)|
|Drives on the||left|
Questers, sometimes called Questaria, Industan, or the Western Commonwealth is a stateless polity in eastern Crataea, with seaboards on the Axackal Sea, the Oryontic Ocean, and the Hanin Sea. Questers borders Dumanum to the west through Yehud, Uiri, Angyika and Hakara to the south-west, and Songia to the south, as well as being geographically proximate to Varnia across the Axackal Strait. With more than 340 million inhabitants, Questers is the 2nd-largest country in the world by population, and spanning 3,891,275-sq mi, is the largest country in the world by area. Questers is a multi-racial, multi-ethnic and multi-religious nation and is also highly diverse by climate.
Like the 'mother country' and colonial parent Praetonia no state entity claims a jurisdiction over the area that makes up Questers, and its own borders are defined by the borders of neighbouring states; Questers has no central government to establish de-jure borders and does not have a constitution.
By its position at the centre of the world, and a crossing point between continents, Questers has played an instrumental role in world history, and by its large population, economy, and armed forces, exerts significant cultural influence. Some consider Questers, as a common law country, to be a a part of one country known as the Commonwealth alongside Praetonia and North Point. A lack of border controls between these countries has historically facilited, and continues to facilitate, compelling cultural, social, and economic integration.
Without a central governing authority, economic estimates are difficult, but Questers' GDP is assumed to be approximately $6,650 billion, making it one of the richest countries in the world by gross domestic product. Questers is significant less developed per capita than most Wallasean countries, a consequence of historic inter-racial strife, war, natural disaster, and other social and religious problems.
More than half of Questarians are Hindus or Sikhs of Indian descent. Malays make up another twenty percent, and the descendents of Wallasean settlers, mostly Christians, make up another ten percent. Other Crataean minorities are prevalent; in recent decades, Questers has absorbed significant numbers of refugees from around the world, in large part to its multi-cultural heritage and total lack of border controls. Some countries with strict border controls deport refugees to Questers, especially those who lack documents, and there are significant communities in the country's major cities which have prospered.
- 1 Etymology and identity
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Regions
- 5 Institutions
- 6 Economy
- 7 Healthcare
- 8 Education
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Culture
- 11 See also
Etymology and identity
The term Questers comes from the Praetonian name for its original settlers, of whom it said were embarking on a 'quest' to settle the new world. The term Questaria for the country is common in both Praetonia and North Point, and is an adopted identity by whites in Questers, especially those of Praetonian or Cockay descent. Indians tend to prefer the term Industan and my also refer to themselves by their religion ahead of their national identity, such as Hindus or Sikhs. Malay people may typically refer to the area around the Pahang river as Malaya (or Tanah Melayu, Malay Land) and the rest of the country as Industan or Questers.
Since Questers is not a state polity and lacks a core nationalist identity, the words used by people to refer to the country as a whole are largely dependent on their own racial, ethnic, or religious identity. In particular, many people in the Commonwealth do not consider Questers, Praetonia, and North Point as being separate countries, but as being regions of the same country, referring to them as the Western and Eastern Commonwealth respectively, with North Point sometimes being referred to as the Commonwealth Islands and Praetonia even as the Home Islands.
Human settlement of the area in Questers dates back to prehistoric times, with the oldest human fossils discovered in Questers dating to 125,000 years ago. Early civilisation began approximately 7,000 years ago around the Nampata river; varying empires emerged around 2,500 years ago as early Hinduism began to form. Around 800 AD, the Prophet Muhammed formalised Islam in the Yehud, which rapidly began to spread to the coastal Axackal countries. A Dumani invasion in 1155 AD drove the Muslims out of Yehud; the religion spread in Questers amongst mainly Malay people who had emigrated from Songia across the Questarian plain between 1000 BC and 500 AD.
The first Praetonian traders arrived in Questers on the ocean-going ship Gannet in 1579. Between that time and the establishment of the first free ports in the 1650s, Praetonian merchants conducted trans-oceanic trade. High taxes in the coastal ports led these merchants to create a Company, the Company of Questers, later known as the Imperial Company of Questers. The Company pooled the funds of its subscribers to buy land and establish a defensible colony town, Landing. Between 1650 and 1692, the Company created three new settlements; Westhaven, New Haversham, and New Kingston. The area connecting these settlements was first named New Senland in 1689. The settlers sided with Senland during the Praetonian Civil War. These ports became wealthy as they rapidly became centres of trade across the Oryontic ocean. Although the Puritan Congregationalism of the settlers did not stop them from admitting members of native religions into their settlements, it did lead to a severely uncompromising Legalist political situation.
In 1707 the Prince of Mogami, Khatri, attempted to impose taxes on the settlers. The Company's troops, armed and equipped with the latest weaponry from the Praetonian Civil War and bolstered by veterans of that conflict, inflicting a series of decisive defeats on the Prince between June and December 1707, a period of time known as the Glorious Six Months. The Company's land rapidly expanded after the Company's war indemnities took more than 500 square miles of land from the Prince. The Prince was allowed to retain his throne, but was also forced to allow common law courts to operate in his lands. Consequently, after the end of the war, local merchants started trading with the settlers under the common law, which began to spread throughout the whole of northern Questers. The settlers found common ground with Sikh peoples, often persecuted by the Hindu majority. The Sikhs formalised an alliance with the Congregationalist settlers in 1747. When Prince Varma died in 1751, leaving his 11-year old son on the throne, the Praetannic settlers and Sikhs took the opportunity to depose him and end royalist rule in the Mogamiland.
The total area of Questers is 3,891,275 mi² (6,262,400 km²), which makes it one of the largest countries by area in the world. It consists chiefly of the Subcontinent but also a number of smaller islands around it, such as Captain's Island and Southreach Island. It is one of the countries with a coast on the Axackal strait; the other being Varnia. To the west is Dumanum and Songia and to the East and South, the Oryontic ocean.
|Province||Size||Map||Most common language||Description|
Questers is not a state with a constitution or branches of government, and unlike other non-state societies, it is highly decentralised. It is divided into hundreds - possibly thousands - of territories defined by the boundaries of privately owned land, and in which land-owners make laws and rules which apply to their lands, a system known as Estatism. The size of these territories ranges between a few square miles to the 300,000-sq mi held by Sultan Abdul Afiz, and can sometimes even be non-contiguous: Questers is sometimes referred to as a "patchwork commonwealth".
Without a government or central law, there is no central standard for land ownership, but there are generally three types of landowners, who are referred to as Estatists:
- Nobility, predominantly found in Malaya and Khalsaland, who have obligations to higher ranking members of the nobility on which their ownership of land depends,
- Freeholders, who own land concurrently, alone, or in joint stock companies, typically in cities, who have no obligations to a higher authority,
- Common landowners, tribal systems in which land is owned collectively by the residents of an area, but in which rules are made by Elders or religious authority figures.
Throughout history, landowners have confederated to provide for a common defence against foreign invasion, civil disorder, and bandits, but also for guarantees against each another; landowners have occasionally, but rarely, gone to war with one another over disputes. The form of confederation has changed historically, but in the present day more than 75% of landowners in Questers swear allegiance and pay tribute to Sultan Abdul Afiz, who in return provides security for them and neutral arbitration.
Praetonian common law rules provide a common legal doctrine to unite the continent's huge variety of cultures, ethnic groups, religions, and legal philosophies. Where disputes arise that absolutely can not be solved, military power is used to enforce a recognisable common law solution. For this reason, Questers is considered as part of the Commonwealth.
Historically, the Continental Company of Freeholders was the only major political organisation in Questers. It was run as a joint stock company whose profits came from rents on property and dividends on investments, and in which any person who owned land in Questers could buy shares, although the sale of shares was voted on by an annual meeting. The Company used its profits to raise troops to defend the country and enforce the law, and often embarked on infrastructure projects. During the Questarian Civil War, the Company's share value fell low enough for it to be subject to a hostile takeover by one of its largest shareholders, Sultan Abdullah Afiz, who dissolved the company and took on all of its assets.
During the civil war, Questarian estatists swore allegiance to Sultan Afiz, and promised to provide funds to prosecute the war. After the war ended, estatists continued their contributions in exchange for a complex set of obligations. In general, estatists must pay a proportion of the land value of their property, which may increase significantly during wartime, and in return receive protection from the Sultan's troops, who will enforce the decisions of estatists on their own estates, and the decisions of selected Praetonian common law courts in matters between estatists. This system lacks a formal name; Questers has been characterised as an autocracy, an empire, a feudal state, and an anarchy.
Different relations fall into broad categories. Beneath the Sultan's own crown lands, there are Protectorates, lands owned in common or by a federated group of individuals, Principalities, Duchies, Radenates and Maharajates, lands owned by nobility who swear allegiance to the Sultan, and free cities with various property arrangements that contribute. The total lands of all estatists who swear allegiance to the Sultan is commonly called Rajamandala, after a common Hindi-Malayan-Javanese root word for rule/ruler, offices of the Sultan which exist to manage this system are often named accordingly, and in the context of the whole body of estatists, the Sultan is referred to as DEFENDER OF THE FAITHS, Abdullah Afiz, Questarian Rajah.
Certain estatists in the north of Questers, especially in Orissaland and New Senland have formed their own military association known as the Straits Federation. This organisation has an agreement to donate troops to the Sultan if there is a general war against the law, but otherwise the two are not related.
There is no single or central source of law in Questers: law is highly pluralistic and decentralised. Different forms of customary law dominate various areas of the country, and disputes are settled according to the customary laws in place in a given area. The underlying principle of law in Questers is Opinio juris sive necessitatis; individuals who act according to norms which other individuals subscribe to are believed to have acted in a just manner and are secure from retaliation.
Where disputes arise between customs, a neutral form of law is customarily used for arbitration, which since the early 19th-century has usually been the Praetonian common law. The military power of Praetannic settlers and their allies has provided a rationale and cultural impetus for the use of the Praetonian laws, which are interchangeable with those found in Praetonia and North Point. Questers does not have state law enforcement as in other countries, and neither does it have central courts; it is up to the individuals involved to come to an agreement or to hire private bailiffs to perform restorative justice.
- Use as military
Questers does not have one central army raised from a single source; instead, various groups raise their own private armies. The Yeomanry (or Tentera) is the collective name given to any privately raised military force in Questers, which may be used for military defence or for law enforcement. Estimates of military units in active service in Questers range from 220,000 to 450,000, depending on definition, with main active combat forces totalling nine divisions. In addition, the Malayan Federation employs 850 combat aircraft.
Historically, landowners confederated in order to jointly fund military protection, either from foreign invasion, or bandits; personnel were raised from the male population of a given settlement, and during the Glorious Six Months, the freeholders of New Senland elected a Marshal-General to command the military units that each settlement had pledged. This practice continues to the modern day: a Marshal-General is still regularly chosen today to administer and lead the forces they collect for the national defence.
- Use as law enforcement
As Questers has no central law enforcement agencies, the Yeomanry is occasionally called in for a law enforcement purpose: landowners who contribute to the Yeomanry are entitled to call them in "the presence of outlaws, few or many, armed or otherwise, for the purpose of securing the peace". The Yeomanry can only be called in the event of an ongoing and immediate threat, not to perform restorative justice, which is the task of private bailiffs. Some parts of Questers hire a Wolfhunter-General whose task it is to capture outlaws; where the Wolfhunter-General is overwhelmed he may also expect to call upon the Yeomanry.
Other than protection of the Commonwealth's external borders, the main job of the Yeomanry is to keep the peace. Since most of the Yeomanry is funded by the Malayan Federation, it is the Federation's opinio juris of what constitutes the peace that dominates the areas where the Yeomanry is deployed in force, since any contributor can call upon them to keep public order. The Yeomanry is especially deployed in the western Nampataland, where the civil power requires military aid more frequently due to ethnic and religious tensions and an ultra-polycentric legal system.