Questarian Civil War
|Questarian Civil War|
Top left to right; rioters in Andagarh, May 2011; Congress troops in Jesselton; North Point Flying Corps jets on an interdiction mission; the Selma Kiara towers in Kuala Pahang burn under Congress shelling; Eastern Association troops land in New Senland; Loyalist troops pick their way through Naugarh, 2013.
Company of Freeholders|
Sultan Abdullah Afiz
|Commanders and leaders|
Ahsan Kumar Vasudev|
|300,000 at beginning, rising to 900,000||155,000 at beginning, rising to 700,000|
|Casualties and losses|
|Approx. 230,000 KIA||Approx. 110,000 KIA|
The Questarian Civil War, also known as the Great Mutiny, was a civil war in Questers between 2011 and 2013. The exact start and end dates are disputed, but generally held to be between June 2011 and February to March 2013. The war was fought by the Company of Freeholders until its dissolution, Trades Union Congress, an alliance of Questarian trades union, the Company of Freeholders (until November 2011) and Sultan Abdullah Afiz's Estate (after November 2011) against the Trades Union Congress, an alliance of Questarian trades unions. It started after an uprising in the Yamunaland in early 2011, and ended in early 2013, after loyalist troops defeated the Congress's military.
The war was mostly fought over which form of the Praetonian common law had total legitimacy in Questers. The Congress held the Syndicalist view that private property would be unlawful under the common law, and attempted to abolish property rights, which it compared to slavery, across Questers. The civil war marked a development in the old schism between common law traditions, which had most recently broken out during the the Troubles in Praetonia, and continues, albeit more weakly, to the present day. As the war bankrupted many Estates, resulted in the downfall of the Company of Freeholders, and re-solidified Praetonian interests in Questers, it is considered both one of the most important cultural and political events in the Commonwealth and also a major cause of significant recent social change in Questers.
The war saw approximately 330,000 men killed in action, a further 700,000 wounded, and more than 5 million civilians displaced from their homes. The total cost to the Loyalists of fighting the civil war amounted to nearly 4.5 trillion Guineas.
Following the mutiny of the Frontier Force, the Freeholders assembled the Yamuna-Ghaghara Force (YGF), a mix of reservist units and local militias. The First Battle of Naugarh saw the YGF battle the hastily-assembled Public Protection. The Y-GF was mostly destroyed in the battles with the Syndicalist militias by July 2011, and Public Protection pushed into the Ghagharaland and Axackaland, occupying most of the rural areas. Public Protection established the United Headquarters (UHQ) in Naugarh in August to co-ordinate strategy. After the mutiny and the destruction of the Y-GF, the assassination of the Praetonian Lord Protector caused Praetonia to enter the war. Hood's troops captured the main Freeholder arsenals in the Charnadaland in August and September.
The first major battle between professional forces took place in October 2011. Taking the traditional Throughland route via the Panchkula pass, Hood's Rangers launched an air assault on October 23rd, capturing the rail marshaling yards at Jertih and Machang, allowing Hood's Mobile Corps to slip through the Panchkula pass. The four divisions of the Mobile Corps met the Praetonian Expeditionary Force in the gap between Kulai and Kota Rembang but were repulsed with heavy losses on both sides. Praetonian naval aircraft gained air supremacy and inflicted sufficient casualties on the Mobile Corps for it to be forced to withdraw. Simultaneously, the Public Protection launched a major offensive designed to meet up with Hood's pincer. Syndicalist troops attempted to cross the Pahang river, but were repulsed outside Bandar Bakau; they attempted to enter Kuantan at the same time, but were also repulsed, although the city remained under artillery fire for the rest of the war.
In November of 2011, Public Protection pushed up the Mogami valley, capturing Jesselton on December 1st. Public Protection units captured most of the Ghagharaland and south Orissaland, and laid siege to New Manchester; in the Axackaland they laid siege to Melbourne and Halifax, but could not enter any of the cities. Public Protection was unable to move further up the Mogami valley as New Senland local militia under the command of Marshal Peter Robertson held them outside Beaufort. After the Syndicalists captured Jesselton, Abdullah Afiz launched a hostile takeover of the Company of Freeholders, acquiring its assets. The remaining loyalist Estatists in Questers, outside of New Senland, swore allegiance to him.
2012 and Siege of Kuala Pahang
The beginning of January saw the loyalists attempt to push the Syndicalist forces away from their footholds across the Pahang river in Operation Landscape, supported by a large scale strategic bombing campaign by Loyalist aircraft in Operation Marathon. Operation Landscape was completed by March; the Loyalists had managed to reduce the Syndicalist pockets on the southern sides of the Pahang river, and keep both Bandar Bakau and Kota Kenangang free of Syndicalist shelling. However, casualties were heavy; most of the Loyalist troops were militia with untrained or inexperienced officers. More than 20,000 loyalist troops were killed in this operation. Marathon was also considered a success, with some advanced weapons or munitions factories being destroyed and the Syndicalist communications heavily damaged. Loyalist aircraft flew more than 600 sorties in 24 days, with a loss of 123 aircraft.
On 1st March, Hood's troops launched an attack towards Kuala Pahang. Divided into three wings (Left aiming for Kota Bintang, Centre aiming for Damai and Right aiming for Tentulu), they launched from their jumping-off positions against minor opposition. Most of the Loyalist resistance melted in the face of a mechanised attack. On the 16th of March, with local resistance still comprising only militia, Hood occupied Kota Bintang, and by the 18th his troops were also in Kota Kuala and Kota Malang, althoguh Tentulu had been abandoned as a jumping off point into Endau. Hood's tanks stood less than fifty miles on a modern highway to Kuala Pahang.
By the 23rd of March Kuala Pahang was totally encircled. Loyalist troops had arrived from the south and had attempted to break the encirclement from Kuching, but were unable to achieve a breakthrough. Afiz's loyalist command decided to rally more troops before launching a full counter-offensive. Key to the loyalist strategy was the use of airpower to destroy Hood's rail links to his interior; more than 30 airfields were hastily constructed by engineers, and aircraft from across the Commonwealth arrived to launch interdiction missions on Syndicalist troops and their supply lines. Hood's troops repeatedly attempted to enter the city but were repulsed by Questarian and Praetonian defenders. The siege continued until the 21st of May.
To Hood's right, the Congress attempted a major offensive against Bandar Bahru and Bandar Bakau in Operation Typhoon, attempting to link up with Hood, but this was repulsed with heavy losses; nearly 30,000 Syndicalist troops became casualties. Unable to enter Kuala Pahang or destroy decisively the Loyalist troops massing south of the eastern Pahang, and simultaneously being prevented from crossing the western Pahang to link up the two Syndicalist armies, the situation was both extremely precarious and also the peak of the Syndicalist military success, often called the high water mark of Syndicalism.
War at sea
During August 2011, Syndicalist militia occupied the naval bases of the Axackal Squadron. Of the Squadron's 24 active warships, three were scuttled in port by their sailors, and the other 21 taken into service by the Syndicalists. A core cadre of sailors converted to the Syndicalist side and helped run the Squadron, while the other remaining Loyalists were interred. Only one frigate, New Glasgow, escaped and joined the Loyalist forces.
Questers has significant oil and gas reserves in the Axackal sea. These, and their coastal refineries in the Axackaland were seized during August-September by the Syndicalist Axackal Squadron. In addition, Public Protection militias advanced far up the Axackaland and laid siege to several coastal cities there. Responsibility for resupplying these cities and recapturing the oil and gas infrastructure was given to the North Point Sea Command which launched Operation Galvanize in December 2011.
From December 2011 to February 2013, North Point warships destroyed the Axackal Squadron, recaptured the majority of the oil and gas infrastructure with naval special forces, and successfully escorted more than 800 civilian merchantmen with essential supplies.