Flamaguay

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Flamaguayan Confederation
Confederación Flamaguaya
Flag Seal
Motto: 
Anthem: 
  • "¡A las barricadas!"
  • ("To the barricades!")
Territory of the Flamaguayan Confederation
CapitalFunes
Official languages Flamaguayan
Demonym Flamaguayan
Flamaguayo
Government Codified State
 •  Caudillo Ermenegildo Maturín Casonféz
Area
 •  1,632,000 km2
630,119 sq mi
Population
 •  2018 estimate 86,175,940
 •  Density 52.8/km2
136.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
 •  Total 4,800 bn
 •  Per capita 55,700
Currency Peso Autónomo (₳) (PAF)
Time zone (UTC+1 (?))
Date format yyyy-mm-dd
Drives on the right

The Flamaguayan Confederation is a rationally codified democratic state located in south-west Wallasea, bordering the Oryontic Ocean to the east, it shares frontiers with Embrea to the north-west, Prekovy to the north, and with Zegora-Bogatovia along its large western border. Spanning ?-sq km, Flamaguay counts with just over 86 million inhabitants distributed within the nineteen Marches that compose the Hegemony. With a gross domestic product of $4.8 trillion, Flamaguay is one of the worlds largest economies and one of the richest on a per-capita basis. It's large service sector, economic openness, and high standard of living classify it as a developed market.

Flamaguay is a secular semi-direct democracy with a strong federal state headed by the Caudillo. The Marches are sub-national entities with power of self-governance over certain political aspects, mainly social, educational, and law-enforcement policy.

The overwhelming majority of the inhabitants of the Hegemony are ethnic Flamaguayans, who in turn are primarily Reformed Oswinists. Oswinism is central to life in Flamaguay, being embedded in many of the traditions and rituals associated with everyday life and the institutions of the various Marches. Religious and ethnic minority groups in Flamaguay enjoy full equality in the law and the Hegemony is regarded as a cultural mosaic of various Wallasean, and even more exotic, groups.

Flamaguay has been consistently involved principally in Wallasea and Veridis. A rich maritime nation, it has left its mark in various corners of the world. The scars of the severe civil conflict that followed the era of political turmoil arising from the Great War still mark its culture. Thrown into depression by the loss of its colonies and the economic disruption brought on by warfare, Flamaguay's stabilization in the 60s prepared it for an economic rebound in the 70s that lifted it to never before reached heights in terms of quality of life.

Etymology

The leading hypothesis for the origin of the name Flamaguay notes its translation as "the land of the Flams". The Flams displaced the prehistoric inhabitants of south-west Wallasea, with the name "Flamaguay" being utilised to refer firstly to the south-west of the region, and since the formation of the modern polity, to the country as a whole.

History

Prehistoric Flamaguay was characterized by small cultures seemingly centered around the construction of monoliths. Little is known about these cultures, which were subsequently exterminated by waves of Flamaguayan migrants. Settled into coastal city-states, ancient Flamaguayans stood in contrast with the horse cultures of the inner plains. Maritime projection rapidly emerged as the defining element in determining relations between cities. Control over seaborne commerce developed a network of flexible trading leagues which dominated Flamaguay for thousands of years, as these coastal entities became richer, they displaced the horse peoples further inland. Cities fought to establish marcas, territory to serve as both a buffer and an agricultural heartland around their urban cores.

Flamaguayan explorers sighted Veridis in 1416, ushering in a period of renewed growth spurred by the massive burst in transcontinental trade. Spearheaded by the Just and Equitable League, Flamaguayan trading posts rapidly emerged throughout Veridds, bringing them into conflict both with local peoples and in minor disputes among themselves. A century of economic development brought on by the adoption of mercantilism and colonial profits was interrupted in 1520 by the Council of Trogg, creating a rift in Owsinism across Wallasea. The Covenant of Fraternal Faith coalesced from the many cities and Marches in Flamaguay in order to protect the nascent Reformed faith. The Covenant, through the Ever-Serving Army, led multiple military campaigns both against its neighbours and peoples regarded as heretics and heathens, including the expulsion of Providentialists to Veridis in 1534.

The power of the Reformed Church grew rapidly in early-modern Flamaguay, as their control over the army and the necessities brought on by war allowed a creeping expansion of its influence. The Reformed Church was simultaneously characterized by a formal decentralization of ecclesiastical power and an informal high degree of cohesiveness and social hierarchy. Many military officers were themselves clergy, which permitted control over military planning and finance in addition to ensuring that the "Mission Donations" passed from being a contribution to being a fixed levy to the Church. In effect, by the close of the 16th century the Church was able to act independently of other political entities in Flamaguay by utilizing the Ever-Serving Army, the strongest force in the region, as its de-facto standing army.

Religious turmoil was not limited to Wallasea, with Veridis hosting competing Providentialist colonial settlements and vast remnants of native inhabitants following their traditional belief structures. Clashes with Common law entities were commonplace in the region until the Subjugation of Jará, with Flamaguay recognising North Point in 1690. Colonial development continued in spite of conflict, being driven by powerful trade companies which extracted the resources of Veridis to then refine and trade in Wallasea, generating great wealth to Flamaguay. Veridis itself was a patchwork of company tracts, league ports, and Covenant forts, all governed in differing ways.

The power of the Reformed Church led to a constant centralisation of political power among the upper echelons of its hierarchy, causing increasing resentment from the wealth-generating merchant class and the burgeoning secular middle class as a whole. Radicals declared the Society of Reason in 1724, sparking an open conflict against church authorities. Revolutionary forces found themselves in an advantageous position, with many traditional allies of the Church not directly related to the clergy or church institutions deserting its support network in a bid for greater autonomy. By 1727, forces loyal to the Society of Reason had displaced Church loyalists from all major urban centers, and counted upon the support of all trading leagues and companies.

The educated middle class that composed the central political support of the Society of Reason put forward Rational Codification as a political and legal theory seeking to structure society on a foundation of empirical observation and thought. The modern Flamaguayan state dates its foundation to the Revolution of 1724, which centralised control and codified law at a hitherto unseen rate. Tumultuous events in the metropole enabled the many merchant companies of Flamaguay to operate with greater freedom. The new "Rational State", preoccupied with consolidating its rule on the mainland, was unable to exert its power over the companies' operations in Veridis, serving to increase the discrepancy in administration between the Flamaguayan mainland and company territory. This autonomy was only limited in 1774, following the Orylian War with Saratovia, when the direct intervention of the Flamaguayan state in the conflict heralded an end to independent company activity.

The 19th century

1905-1910: The Great War, Wallasean Front 1949-1951: Flamaguayan Civil War

The 1951 election, held on schedule immediately after the conclusion of the civil war, was dominated by the Popular Concordant. Presenting a single, unified, list of candidates, the Popular Concordant essentially continued their wartime power-sharing agreement into peacetime. The single list was legitimised as a continuing necessity related to the conflict with the purpose of further stabilising the nation. Rationing was terminated in 1954.

The 1956 election was held openly.

1966 election is won by hardliners.

1968: 6 May - 13 June War of the Three Valleys

Politics

Flamaguay is a rationally codified democracy. The government is regulated by the Flamaguayan Constitution, which establishes a detailed system of codes, checks, and balances, serving as the supreme legal document of the nation. As a federation, Flamaguayan citizens are subject to four levels of government, with different obligations: federal, march, region, and municipal. Government officials in every level are elected, either directly or indirectly, by a vote of adult citizens by circumscription.

The March (Marca) is the building-block of the unified Flamaguayan nation. Historically, a March denoted the frontier territories around the wealthy merchant-towns that were the political centers of pre-unification Flamaguay. Presently the Marches have evolved into administrative units, varying wildly in size and population. Each March is legally a sovereign power, retaining considerable autonomy over local matters with the ability to independently pass legislation. The national state, modeled as a Confederation, retains powers related to economic policy, external affairs and defense. Historically the Marches had complex relations of rights and obligations as members of the Confederacy, now the only remaining obligation is to provide manpower, as a proportion of their population, to the Confederation as a whole.

Each one of the nineteen Marches in the Confederacy counts with its own Plenary of the Levy, a council composed by those citizens that are eligible for, or have provided, military service. These Plenaries legislate on local affairs and are headed by a Supplier of Quota (Repartidor de Cuota). Each Plenary selects Comptrollers, who sit on the Council of Notables, and Hidalgos, who integrate the College of Infantes. The Council of Notables oversees economic legislation, while the College of Infantes staff the institutions related to law, order, and national defense. At the start of every five-year term, the Comptrollers and Hidalgos in joint session appoint a Caudillo to guide the Confederacy as a whole in case of emergency, being the ultimate arbiter of the "Serenity of the Confederation". The Directorates of the Confederacy, with the Caudillo at their head, constitute the executive arm of the state. The Prosecutor of the Community (Abogadoria de la Comunidad) is the maximum judicial organ in the Confederation, with one-third of its 60-member panel being elected every 5 years by a national-level vote of all citizens. Should the Prosecutor of the Community reach a deadlock on any decision, the tie is broken by a vote between the nineteen Suppliers of Quotas.

The Municipality is the smallest administrative division in Flamaguay, Municipalities are tasked with minor administrative tasks, with many municipalities grouped into a Commune (Comuna). A Commune counts with a court of first instance, as well as a local council. The Commune is the center of day-to-day political life for the average Flamaguayan citizen. The Commune has strong powers to pass local ordinance, and citizens possess the initiative to impact legislation through petitions and referendums. Encompassing the Communes are the Regions, with their primary purpose being to contain courts of appeal. Regional governments are weak, either having policy dictated by March as a whole, or being required to delegate decision-making to the Communal level.

Government

Government Directorates
Translated name
Official name
Function
Seal of Flamaguay.png
  • Directorate of Agriculture
  • Directorio de Agricultura
  • Oversees regulation and management of agriculture, livestock, fisheries, and foodstuffs
  • Directorate of Communications
  • Directorio de Comunicaciones
  • Oversees communication infrastructure regulation, and regulates the local market
  • Directorate of Foreign Affairs
  • Directorio de Asuntos Exteriores
  • Conducts formal state relations with foreign entities
  • Directorate of Justice
  • Directorio de Justicia
  • Oversees the administration of the national justice system
  • Directorate of National Defense
  • Directorio de Defensa Nacional
  • Oversees the armed forces
  • Directorate of Public Administration
  • Directorio de Adminsitraciones Públicas
  • Oversees and manages the bureaucratic machinery of the state
  • Directorate of Public Hygiene
  • Directorio de Higiene Pública
  • Oversees law enforcement, domestic security, and border control
  • Directorate of Public Instruction
  • Directorio de Instrucción Pública
  • Regulates education and manages state-provided and funded education at all levels
  • Directorate of Public Wellfare
  • Directorio de Bienestar Publico
  • Regulates the health sector, health policy, and manages state-operated health facilities
  • Directorate of Social Action
  • Directorio de Acción Social
  • Manages public insurance and social assistance programmes
  • Directorate of Public Works
  • Directorio de Obras Publicas
  • Manages public-funded infrastructure programmes
  • Directorate of the Interior
  • Directorio del Interior
  • Manages the relations of the state with, and administration of, sub-national divisions
  • Directorate of the Treasury
  • Directorio de Hacienda
  • Manages public finances

Administrative Divisions

Flamaguay is subdivided into 19 Marches (marcas). The country is further divided into Regions, which are composed of Communes. Municipalities, the lowest form of administrative division, make up the Communes.

Code Flag March Capital Area (km2) Population Pop. density
(per km²)
GDP (millions)
(PPP)
GDP (PPP)
per capita
Recognised regional language
AL Alzoreñas Tandruxu tba 1,378,520 tba $84,879 $61,572.56
AR Armantallana Sisto tba 2,827,362 tba $184,620 $65,297.62
BE Flag of Oulx.png Bernéñegüe Àsleussa tba 4,210,098 tba $184,945 $43,928.91
CL Callsorés Castellterçol tba 4,161,125 tba $174,007 $41,817.30
CR Careolara Éntaquera tba 9,830,773 tba $547,769 $55,719.83
EZ Ezcorgaça Olivintes tba 1,875,632 tba $71,043 $37,876.83 Embrean
FA Farjanals Xiricada tba 6,827,450 tba $474,586 $69,511.46
GL Galvanha Poiços tba 3,502,285 tba $124,897 $35,661.58 Embrean
GR Garnazli Ploanorva tba 2,487,190 tba $79,845 $32,102.49
HO Hoñadújar Lajadira tba 7,146,355 tba $365,030 $51,079.19
IP Ipilve Almigüeñete tba 6,897,548 tba $378,133 $54,821.37
ME Mecenía Vilivazo tba 1,756,842 tba $79,548 $45,278.97
MO Mottinello Zola tba 1,987,532 tba $128,019 $64,411.04
PI Pistuelli Bonlieri tba 1,175,281 tba $40,727 $34,652.99
RU Ruite Grañoto tba 12,612,785 tba $860,410 $68,217.29
SA Savassona Rubí tba 3,917,958 tba $214,577 $54,767.56
TE Telryonxes Llorixioçes tba 4,689,734 tba $307,472 $65,562.78
UT Útuqua Consatapeyes tba 3,744,661 tba $201,733 $53,872.17
VA Valenuete Valdontero tba 5,146,809 tba $297,876 $57,875.86

Human Rights

The Flamaguayan Constitution of 1964 "upholds the protection of all Flamaguayans, and of all the people living in Flamaguay, in their exercise of the rights attributable to them in regards to their person, to fair trial and judgement, to participation in governance, and to uphold their cultures and traditions". Widely regarded as a liberal and humanist polity, Flamaguay consistently places highly in terms of international rankings measuring personal, religious, political, sexual, and press freedoms. Vulnerable groups, such as children, the elderly, the physically handicapped and the developmentally challenged, enjoy more extensive protection under the law.

All Flamaguayan residents enjoy a wide variety of rights: to life; to their person; to health services; to food; to shelter; to a fair trial; and freedoms: from torture; of movement; of expression; of conscience; of thought.

A free press is a central characteristic of public discourse in Flamaguay. Each municipality counts with at least one newspaper or newsletter, amounting to thousands across the whole nation. A dozen newspapers dominate the national market, with their circulation being measured in the millions. Aside from moderate libel laws, there is virtually no censorship in the country.

Flamaguay recognises civil unions for any two adult citizens of sane state of mind. The state does not register religious matrimony, which are regarded as independent contracts between the issuing religious institution and the individuals involved.

Foreign Relations

Flamaguay is a founding member of the Comprehensive Negotiating Framework for Southern Wallasea, and maintains positive relationships with all member states. The foreign relations of Flamaguay are centered around ensuring the self-preservation of the Flamaguayan state from its historic rivals in Prekovy and the Common law. Flamaguay is extensively involved diplomatically among its former colonies in Veridis, having repaired relations with all states with the exception of Puerto Blanco. Through the Embrean-Flamaguayan Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Flamaguay and Embrea are obliged to defend one another from external aggression in Wallasean conflicts.

Military

The SEPA Ráfaga forms the backbone of Flamaguayan airpower.

The Flamaguayan Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Flamaguay) are the military and paramilitary forces of the Flamaguayan state, with the Caudillo serving as supreme commander. They are composed by the National Army (Ejercito Nacional), the National Navy (Armada Nacional), the National Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Nacional) and the Corps of Carabineers. The armed forces of Flamaguay are the second-largest in Wallasea, and some of the largest and most well-equipped in the entire world.

The armed forces count with over 500,000 military and 150,000 paramilitary personnel, with more than 750,000 in the reserve. Conscription policy requires all able adults over 20 years of age to serve for 16 months in active forces, followed by mandatory enrollment in the reserve roster of the branch in which they served. An individual who identifies as a conscientious objector is required to carry out 2 years of service in a high-risk service such as firefighting or mountain rescue, or 4 years in a low-risk service such as rubbish collection.

The Cuerpo de Carabineros serves as Flamaguay's gendarmerie. a volunteer-only formation, it is considered an integral part of the armed forces, with personnel and logistical expenses being accounted for by the Ministry of National Defense. However, it is operationally attached to the Directorate of Public Hygiene, under which it carries out peacetime duties as a federal-level policing force. The Prefectura Naval was formerly under military control, but it was passed entirely to the Directorate of Public Hygiene in 1977, and now fulfills entirely civilian coast guard duty.

Economy

Flamaguay is a design and high-investment manufacturing powerhouse.

Flamaguay is a major advanced mixed economy, ranking as the third-largest in Wallasea and the eighth-largest in the world. Regarded as one of the world's most technically-developed industrialized nations, it is a leading country in worldwide trade. Host to innovative businesses, Flamaguay boasts an influential sector of high-quality automobile, rail-transport, robotic, design and fashion industries. In addition to complex manufacturing and luxury goods, the economy is sustained by a traditionally extensive and competitive agricultural sector, as well as a developed finance and service industry.

From the mid 1980s to the beginning of the 1990s Flamaguay entered a considerable recession as its traditional manufacturing sector was undermined by emerging alternatives abroad, majorly in Crataea and Veridis, where cheaper and more plentiful labour was available. In the last two decades, the conglomerates that dominate the Flamaguayan economy have restructured themselves, spurring notable economic growth across the whole country. Local economies are populated by countless small enterprises which retain competitiveness by diligently leveraging their flexibility and community connections.

The Flamaguayan economy is host to over 50 million workers, with unemployment standing at 4.4% in 2017, considerably reduced from the nadir of the 1990s, when it reached as high as 18% in the entire working population and 31% in the under-30 cohort. The economy still bears a distinct divide between the regional economies of the coast and those of the hinterland. Farjanals earned 124.7% of the national GDP per capita in 2018, while the poorest per capita, Garnazli, stood at 57.6%. Levels of education, employment, quality of life, and income equality are noticeably higher in coastal areas. One of the few statistical figures in which hinterland Marches constantly outscore their maritime companions is that of home ownership. This divide is further compounded by the vast amount of young people from the hinterland that work, often seasonally, in coastal cities.

Infrastructure and Transport

Flamaguayan transport infrastructure is both modern and extensive, with only the furthest reaches of the country failing to count with high-speed railways, canals, and airports.

Tourism

Flamaguay is a world-leading destination for international tourism. The country's coast has a climate which provides warm summers and comparatively light winters, The interior instead boasts both clear flatlands and rolling hills. As a whole, the modern level of infrastructure found across the country facilitates travel, and the high level of education means that the tourist industry is well-supplied with multilingual workers.

Culture and Society

Flamaguay has been central to the development of Wallasean culture for centuries. Flamaguay has produced countless famous artists in various mediums, and its rich cultural tradition is still internationally recognised as a beacon for artistic development. The development culture has always been a tenet central to the conception of the Flamaguayan nation, with the Flamaguayan state having a constant record of enacting policy supporting the arts in both stable and tumultuous political situations.

Flamaguay is host to over 2,500 museums, both public and private, often subsidized by central or local government. Museums are intended to be as accessible as possible, reciprocating the funds received by carrying out preservation, restoration, and outreach activities. There are over 60,000 protected architectural sites in Flamaguay due to their significant cultural value, these include, but are not limited to: residences, castles, country estates, religious buildings, memorials, gardens, and public grounds such as plazas and squares.

Architecture

Flamaguayan architecture reflects very board and diverse styles, the classification of which must be done both by period and region due to the marked local influences maintained independently in each March until the 20th century. To this day, it has resulted in a varied, even eclectic, range in designs.

The notable architectural achievements of Flamaguayan architecture are influential world-wide, particularly the designs of the Flamaguayan architectural revival from the late-14th through to the mid-16th centuries. The impact of such influence is seen most notably in Wallasea and Veridis, but examples exist in many countries. Flamaguay is also known for the adaptation of foreign styles, specifically for the adoption of neo-Dumani and neo-Sukarian features into Wallasean architectural movements.

Literature

Las Hazañas de Don Alfiro was a landmark early novel.

Demographics

Natal Policy

Flamaguay actively espouses population planning as state policy. The aim of state planning is to ensure that the fertility rate never reaches sub-replacement levels. Simultaneously, the state seeks to ensure the proper rearing of children in order to form future generations to be "productive, engaged, and caring, members of society". The achievement of these goals is sought through three major policy initiatives, denominated the "Growth Triad": the levy of a tax on childless couples and individuals, additional benefits for couples or individuals with children, and the power of the state to ensure that an individual or couple is fit to rear of children. The total fertility rate for 2017 was measured at 2.37 births per woman.

Child rearing directives were identified as a "matter of significant national importance" by a joint session of the Council of Notables and Infantes upon the passing of the first All-Confederation Child Development Law (1974). Built on the historic Flamaguayan practice of communal influences on raising offspring, the Child Development Law establishes firm requirements and guidelines on raising infants and youths. Reformed six times since its original implementation (in 1979, 1986, 1992, 1999, and 2013), the Child Development Law enables the state to adjudicate an individual as a "responsible parent" with the right to raise children, establishes educational and physical curricula, and to appropriately ensure the positive development of a child by removing the child from a "context unfit for the growth of a citizen". An individual is expected to raise at least one child, and a couple is expected to raise at least two. The state provides considerable assistance for child rearing.

Flamaguayan state policies regarding child-rearing do not distinguish between children born into a family and those adopted. There are multiple categories which may exempt an individual from the obligation to raise a child. Such categories include, but are not limited to: the mentally unfit, the severely physically handicapped, those convicted for "grievous crimes", and those failing to complete national service (either military or civilian).

In 2004, the Director of Health, Elma Cassei stated that "the policies of the Flamaguayan Confederation regard Women as equal to Men in every possible respect, while also noting the intrinsic biological differences between the sexes. The capability of the female body to ensure reproduction of the nation self-identifies the strategic importance of public health and ensuring that Women have direct and easy access to whatever treatment may be required."

Internationally, Flamaguay is recognised as a leading nation in pre-natal and natal care, in the provision of facilities for pregnant women and young children, and in sustaining consistently low levels in infant mortality. Child homelessness is almost non-existent in contemporary Flamaguay.

Health

Universal health care is provided by the Flamaguayan health care system, sustained primarily through government national health insurance. The Flamaguayan Constitution establishes that access to basic healthcare is a central right in sustaining a dignified life. Healthcare in Flamaguay is rated as one of the most efficient systems world-wide, with extremely high levels of coverage. Over 80% of healthcare expenses are covered by government funding. Coverage is extended for emergency, acute, and chronic conditions. Taxes are deducted for health insurance purposes from various sources, such as income, employer payroll transactions, and a premium on private insurance operations. Sex reassignment therapy and surgery are provided by public healthcare, although there are complaints of high waiting times in public hospitals for surgical procedures.

Genital mutilation is banned in Flamaguay, carrying heavy jail penalties. Cosmetic body modification of minors is illegal in Flamaguay.

Education

The University of Reñar is one of the oldest in the world.

Education in Flamaguay is characterised as a basic right, and is compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. Public school, free and secular, is available at the primary, secondary, and tertiary stages, with the state being obliged to accommodate all applicants at the primary and secondary levels. Private schooling is permitted in Flamaguay, as long as institutions agree to meet the basic tenets of the national curriculum put forward by the Ministry of National Education, and submit their students to standardised end-of-year testing.

Flamaguayan higher education operates a parallel system between technical schooling, public universities, private universities, and the selective public National Institutes (Institutos Nacionales), which provide the upper echelons of the state, business, and art with high-profile recruits. State-provided education is free for primary and secondary levels, while higher education is accompanied by very low fees. Private institutions may charge whatever is deemed fit.

Ethnic Groups

We are all Flamaguayans!

Religion

Religion in Flamaguay (2017).

  Irreligious (53.21%)
  Reformed Oswinism (32.66%)
  Apostolic Oswinism (9.84%)
  Pantheonism/Pagan (1.73%)
  Other (0.46%)

Flamaguay is a secular country, with freedom of confession being protected as a constitutional right. The concept of laisimo defines state policy towards religion, one of complete segregation between public institutions and religious ones.

A slight majority of Flamaguayan citizens identify as irreligious or atheist, with a 2017 survey placing the figure at 53.21%. Oswinism is the leading religion in Flamaguay, with 44.59% of of the population professing their belief for one of the three main branches: 32.66% for Reformed, 9.48% for Apostolic, and 2.1% for Slavonic. A small minority of the population, 1.73%, is either Pantheonist or Pagan. Other religious groups and the undecided compose 0.46% of the total population.

Reformed Oswinism has been the dominant religion in Flamaguay since the Council of Trogg, however its relevance in political and everyday life has declined considerably through the last few centuries. Culturally it still retains more value, with many historically Oswinite customs and practice persisting, although secularised in character. Within religious congregations, adherence to proper forms and rites is much more relaxed than in the past. One-fourth of Oswinists in Flamaguay (~12% of the total population) still identify as such even though they fail to attend regular service.

The Flamaguayan state does not recognise any specific religious rights or privilidges apart from the right of freedom to confession. The state recognises a religious organisation according to codified criteria that are applied universally to all institutions seeking to obtain such classification, which does not distinguish or examine religious doctrine. Religious institutions are prohibited from intervening in policy-making by making their own political organisations, although many retain unofficial ties to nominally independent political groups. Religious institutions are obliged to register with the Sub-Directorate of Cults, under the Directory of the Interior. This means that certain religions which lack a structured internal hierarchy that can interact with the state, such as Providentialism, lack official recognition. These unrecognised religions, formally referred to as sects, are not illegal.