|Res Publica Dumanus
|Motto: "Non sibi sed Patriae"|
|Anthem: Sol Dominatus|
|Ethnic groups (2010)||65% Antarteran
|•||Consul||Titus Junius Marbo|
|•||Consul||Caius Lucanus Macrinus|
|•||Founding of Urbs Dumanus||April 14th, 753BC|
|•||Establishment of the Novus Ordo Civilis||July 4th, 1912|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|Currency||Denarius (D$) (DNS)|
|Drives on the||right|
Dumanum, known officially as the Res Publica Dumanus or the Dumani Republic, is a limited franchise republic situated in central Crataea bordering the Axackal Sea on the east coast and the Ingenic Ocean on the west.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Society
The name Dumanum is derived from the city of Urbs Dumanus, or city of Dumus, the naming of which is attributed to the king Dumus Rex who founded the city according to tradition. However, it is possible that the name Dumus may be derived from Urbs Dumanus itself. There are alternative theories as to the linguistic roots of the word, although none have been conclusively proven:
- from Dumane, a tribe that inhabited the Ostic Peninsula at the time of the Great Arteran Migration
- from the Estrian word domunas, whose root is domu or teat, possibly with reference to the shape of the Palatinus and Argentus Hills
- from the Old Arteran dumos, or one who has bedded many sheep
Dumani civilization sprung from the Ostian Peninsula in present day Antarteria. Archaeological evidence exists of human inhabitants within Ostium and Antarteria at large dating back to the paleolithic age, with various civilizations of Central Crataean origin materializing over a period ranging from circa 3,300 to 2,000 b.c. The second millennium b.c. is noted for the mass migration of Arteran groups from Paralentum to Antarteria, which displaced or absorbed native Crataean civilization. Contemporaneous historical records from this period are nonexistent, although it is widely addressed in Dumani mythology as early as 700 b.c.e. Several Atero-Crataean civilizations arose in Antarteria during this period: the Ostian civilization, originating in Ostium; the Dalantine civilization, in Dalantum; and Tarantine civilization, in Tarantum. Each of these groups, although Arteran in origin, had distinctly differing language and custom. Most notably, there is evidence of the Dalantine civilization widely adopting elements of pre-Arteran culture, and Central Crataean loanwords are present in the classical languages of each of these groups.
Classical Period and the Dumani Republic
According to tradition, the city of Urbs Dumanus was founded in Ostium in 753 b.c. by the mythical King Dumus. Archaeological evidence generally supports a founding date from 850 to 750 b.c., although true historical evidence of the existence of King Dumus is nonexistent and records from this period are based on traditional stories written much later. These same traditional sources indicate that a republican system of government with a senate and peoples' assembly was established sometime in the 6th century b.c. The Dumani Republic went on to subjugate all of modern Antarteria by the 3rd century. By the year 1 AD, the Republic controlled an Axackalic empire stretching from modern Huran and southern Wolohannia in the north, to the Segyna River in Yehud, and Paralentum in the Axackal Sea. North and southward expansion was constrained by the Amyali Mountains to the south and the Nachmeriya Mountains to the north, and throughout the 1st through 2nd centuries AD the Dumani annexed various western kingdoms to the immediate west of Antarteria, culminating in its gaining a coast on the Occidental Sea in Semnia. Exposure to Sukarian culture had a profound effect upon Dumani society, bringing things such as art and philosophy to prominence.
During this period a number of major wars were fought with the Quardacian city-state of Nuceria in Sarynium, which had established a strong merchant empire across the Ingenic coast of Crataea. Although Nuceria was razed to the ground in 128 AD at the conclusion of the 5th Nucerian War, the prosecution of those wars ultimately resulted severe internal political and economic turmoil. This, along with the establishment of professional armies to supplant the citizen-soldiery, resulted in a weakening of traditional republican institutions over the long term. Historians consider the year 243AD to be the end of the historical Dumani Republic and its transition to the Dumani Empire, as Arastes proclaimed himself as dictator-for-life following the Third Dumani Civil War and was succeeded by his son Vulca, who established the Mamarcene dynasty.
Immediately following the fall of the republic and the transition toward an imperial system, a vestige of republicanism was maintained. Emperors style themselves as princeps, or first citizen, ostensibly first among equals within the same social order. Successors were carefully selected based on merit and adopted, rather than blood relatives inheriting the purple. By 750AD, this system had largely gone by the wayside, with emperors adopting styling themselves Dominus, or master, rather than (or in addition to) princeps, with emperors inheriting their thrones from their imperial fathers. This also saw the Senate as an institution reduced to virtual irrelevance as its duties became increasingly ceremonial. Imperial expansion was continuous, with conquests spreading along the southern coast of Arterus. The Dumani Empire ultimately reached its greatest extent in 930 following the emperor Titus Voren's successful campaign in what is now southern modern-day Varnia. The Varnian holdings would remain within the empire for less than 150 years, with the northeastern provinces ultimately abandoned as indefensible in 1070 during the Crisis of the 11th Century, in which the empire fractured into multiple successor states, each claiming the imperial throne. The Dumani Empire proper, centered in Urbs Dumanus, retained control of territory as far east as the Segyna River in modern day Yehud and as far north as the Nimrus River in modern day Siracusa. Wars would be fought between three major successor states, centered around Urbs Dumanus, Aiur in Sukaria, and Charleroi in modern day Fanta, over the next several centuries, although none would succeeed in reuniting the old empire. Though out this time, the empire suffered from succession crises, plagues, famines, barbarian invasions, and rampant inflation. In 1299, the emperor Marius Martius died without an heir, igniting a succession crisis that would ultimately go unresolved, resulting in the slow fragmentation of the Dumani Empire into numerous city-states, with the notable exception of the western provinces which consolidated under Emperor Galerius in Isca into what would come to be known as the Semnian Empire.
By the time of the empire's collapse, the various cities of Antarteria had already accumulated a significant amount of power as a result of the gradual decentralization of imperial rule, and the transition from imperial rule to independence was, in many cases, seamless. The Crisis of the 14th Century saw an initial push to re-consolidate power under various claimants to the imperial throne; warfare between the Antarterian city-states was frequent, with each claiming its own ruler as the rightful heir to the imperial throne. During this time, the city of Urbs Dumanus became increasingly irrelevant as wealth and prestige began to accumulate in cities such as Rema and Aquae Tridentum. Paralentum arose as an independent merchant republic, and would come to dominate much of the Axackal Sea over the next several centuries until the ascension of Varnia as the region's premier naval power. By the year 1400, the Senate in Urbs Dumanus found a new degree of relevance as neutral mediating body, although its power existed only to the extent the different states adhered to its rulings. In the west, the Semnian Empire successfully stabilized its situation and would remain an independent state well into the 18th century. Although several nominally successful campaigns were launched with the objective of reuniting the empire, frequent raids originating from the Ulannic Steppe in the north and occasional conflicts with the neighboring Myeban Empire to the south ultimately prevented it from consolidating any gains and asserting its authority over the east.
In 1487, Bartu Khan successfully unified the tribes of the Ulannic Steppe under his sole rule, and subsequently launched an invasion of the Sukarian Empire. Within 20 years, he had conquered the whole of modern-day Sukaria, Sadari, and Huran, and had ravaged much the Semnian Empire and forced the emperor to flee with the remnants of his armies to Sarynium. Dying in 1509, his empire passed to his sons Jaghatai, Bo'orchu, Vekhujin, and Gzelkhur. Following the will of Bartu, the sons partitioned the empire, with Vekhujin and Gzelkhur ruling over portions of their ancestral homeland and splitting the Sukarian Empire with Jaghatai, and Bo'orchu being granted control over the territory of the Semnian Empire. After a brief period in which he consolidated his power in Sukaria, Jaghatai launched an invasion of Antarteria in 1511. He found it to be disunified and reeling from successive plagues and famine, unprepared to effectively resist his overwhelming numbers. Resistance was swept aside at the Battle of Mediolanum in which the combined armies of five city states were destroyed by the Jaghatids. Following this shocking defeat, most city-states swore fealty to Jaghatai and were allowed to maintain their general autonomy. In 1512, his army sacked Urbs Dumanus after a 3 month siege, slaughtering those who had not fled before the siege. In an act that shocked the entire Dumani world, he plundered and razed the temple of Sol Invictus. By the end of that year, he'd left Antarteria under the rule of his son Bukhara and continued on to invade Yehud, and then Questers.
In 1535, Rasce Nerva succeeded his father as Princeps of the city-state of Aquae Tridentum. Realizing that Bukhara was preoccupied with his settlement of Cydonia and conflicts with his uncle Bo'orchu in the west, and that Jaghatai's armies were far to the east beyond the old Yehudi frontier, he began to court his fellow rulers in Antarteria. For the first time since the sack of the city in 1512, Antarterian sovereigns met in Urbs Dumanus as the Senate of 1536. After several weeks' deliberation, the attendants agreed to a military alliance and to pool their tax burden to the Jaghatids toward the raising of new legions, electing Gaius Lucanus Severus of Rema and Septimus Silanus Octavius of Pavonis as the consuls to command the army. June 30, 1536, the date of the consuls' ascension, is also considered to be the founding date of the revived Dumani Republic.
Campaigns were subsequently be waged to subjugate the city-states that had remained loyal to Bukhara and expel Jaghatid garrisons, and his son Subutai was defeated at the Battle of the River Avenia in 1540 and subsequently executed. This is considered to be the turning point of the Ulannic Wars, with the next 50 years spent defeating attempts to reconquer Antarteria and raiding Bukhara's territory in Cydonia and Yehud. The war is considered to have ended in 1595, following the defeat of the final Jaghatid garrison in western Cydonia.
Unification and Reconquest
Following the defeat of the Ulans, many among the city-states began to consider the overbearing military power of the Senate to be unnecessary. While it did command the strongest military in Antarteria, its employment was hampered by conflicting interests within the Senate itself, who no longer had a powerful external enemy to unite them. Internal strife was present throughout this period, though not to the levels seen the 13th and 14th centuries; the Senate would remain a relatively effective mediator between its constituent city-states. Seasonal campaigning occured throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, eventually seeing the provinces of Eudorum, Subartum, Iehuda Nostra and Cydonia incorporated into the republic. In many cases, local rulers were absorbed peacefully into the republic and themselves became members of the Senate. This had the effect of internal governance becoming increasingly decentralized, while an increasingly utilized and experienced army became the main central institution of the republic.
Significant clashes with the Sukarian Empire in the 18th century, including invasions of Subartum, Eurdorum, and Estria, lead to internal reforms that saw the power of the city-states and municipalities eclipsed by a central government anchored around the military and a burgeoning bureaucratic class. By the time of Sukaria's ultimate defeat at Rema in 1824, the autonomy of the city-states was largely a thing of the past; while they still held large sway over their internal affairs, never again would they have the ability to make war on one another, be it by military, economic, or diplomatic means.
The advent of industrialization, the railroad and seeming decline of the Sukarian Empire lead to a widespread movement demanding the reconquest of the old western provinces. Campaigns against the Vekhs in Angimannia lead to the mass migration of those peoples to Sukarian territory, prompting the later to abandon those territories it held in the west. By 1841, the Dumani Republic had asserted its control over present-day Semnia, and its territory now stretched from the Axackal Sea in the east to the Ingenic Ocean in the west. Anti-Ulannic policies lead to ethnic cleansing in many of the new territories, and the Senate freely awarded parcels of newly conquered land to its Antarteran citizenry. In the west, the former territories of the Semnian Empire were incorporated with their old governing structures largely still intact, with local nobles largely retaining the privileges they had previously held.
The Great War
-Questers pushes into Yehud in 1890s, causes East Yehudi migration into the west, Dum intervenes to protect its western clients- Estatists sign treaty saying they'll stay out of Yehud
-1900s- Questers goes back in to secure resources for the Great War, causing migrations all over again- Senate orders punitive expedition into Questers
-Battles and stuff in Questers, Consul killed in Nampataland
-Sukaria invades Ubaidia, kills other Consul, nearly cuts country in half
-1910: Ultor elected Consul, sent to Yehud
-Ultor stabilizes situation in the east; agrees to withdraw from Yehud in exchange for peace with Questers&Questers abiding by original Yehud treaty. This was against the wishes of the Senate which wanted to push for decisive victory. Ultor's army marches west to fight in Sukaria but stops in Urbs Dumanus along the way, convinces Senate to declare him Dictator
-Situation in the center stabilized by this time, orders navy to sally out and fight Sukaria
-Paralentum re-occupied while Varnia is looking the other way
-Big naval battle destroys most of Sukarian navy, Ultor launches amphibious invasion of Sukaria and arrives at outskirts of Irae
-Sukaria agrees to peace- withdraws all troops from Dumani territory, hard border established at Elam
-Ultor big hero, triumph, etc
-Ultor has triumph in Urbs Dumanus, army decides it likes it there just fine and doesn't leave
-Buddy elected Censor
-Censor changes a bunch of rules, Novus Ordo Civilis is written and put into effect at gun point- total revamp of society, current rules of citizenship put into effect, temporal power stripped from senators- standardized provinces and municipalities established in place of random city states&kingdoms, local rulers replaced with magistrates elected by new citizenry (first waves of magistrates basically hand picked by Ultor to smooth things along)
-Occulta Custodia established to suppress dissent
-Army crushes revolts by some rulers
-Pantheonism established as national religion and pushed as major unifier
-Program to standardize Ostic language and wipe out other languages from public life
-Program to standardize Dumani culture
-Alliance with Wolo Pantheonists/intervention there
-Second war with Semnian Empire, Sarynium and Sarum taken in amphibious invasion
Dumanum is located in western Crataea and has both Axackalic and Ingenic coastlines, occupying an area sometimes referred to as the Neck of Crataea. It also exercises sovereignty over the islands of Paralentum on the Axackal Sea, which it incorporated as a full fledged province in 1959, and annexed the exclave of Siracusa in 2013. Mainland Dumanum is primarily influenced by the east to west connection provided by the Tarus and Sagrus Rivers, which have historically formed a natural line of communication from the stretching from the Axackal to the Adonian Sea, forming the core of the Ostic-speaking world. Border regions are universally characterized by natural boundaries consisting of rivers, mountain ranges, or jungles, with the main notable exception being the border with the Sukarian Empire which is marked by the city of Elam.
Dumanum is equatorial, and as such has moderate to high temperatures prevailing across the whole of the country. The Axackalic coast of the country is predominantly influenced by the Axackal Sea, which serves to moderate the temperature and create damp conditions. In the southeast of the country in the Cydonian Valley, the Amyali and Aenean Mountains interact with the Zephyrine Current to trap moisture, resulting in a high-temperature, high-humidity environment characterized by rain forests. This results in a dry current carrying across the west of the country, where high temperatures and dry conditions prevail. The Adonian Sea coastal regions see this dry current interact with an Ingenic polar current, resulting in frequent weather activity with overall prevailing dry conditions and moderate to high temperatures.
Dumanum is a limited-franchise constitutional republic comprised of two primary governing bodies: the Senatus and Comitia Cohortes. Executive and judicial authority is invested in magistrates appointed by the Comitia, in which legislative authority is invested. The Dumani government, can thus be summarized as follows: legislative authority is delegated to the Comitia; the Senate is responsible for setting policy, whilst the magistrates are responsible for executing policy, administration of the government, and enforcing the law. In the event of an emergency, as declared by the Senate and approved by the Comitia, the Senate may declare any citizen Dictator, temporarily suspending the power of both the Senate and Comitia for a period of 6 months (renewed at the will of the Senate) and investing that individual with supreme judicial and executive authority.
Each resident of Dumanum is categorized into both an ordo (order) and classis (class) under a system known as Inscribus. One's ordo refers to citizenship status and nationality, and are divided into the civitas, or citizen; socius, or "friend", referring to one born of Dumani parentage that is not a citizen; and the peregrinus, or foreigner. The classis, or class, refers to one's social or economic class, divided into the gentilus, or one of a respectable profession or otherwise economically self-sufficient; and the vulgaris, or one who has either committed a criminal act or is otherwise not economically self-sufficient. This system is utilized as a method of social control, and is regulated by the Office of the Censor.
Franchise in the Dumanum is strictly limited to citizens. Citizenship may be earned only through a minimum 4 years' voluntary service in the Exercitus. Per the latest census (January 2018), there are 15,491,301 citizens.
Law and Order
Dumani law has its basis in two forms: the written legal code, known as the Codex; and a constitution known as the Novus Ordo Civilis, or New Civil Order. The Codex is a body of ancient jurisprudence, senatorial edicts, legislative actions, and selected customary laws. The Codex may be amended by senatus consulta and Comitian legislature. The Novus Ordo Civilis enshrines the requirements of citizenship and duties of the citizenry, the status of other persons such as socii, the structure of the government, as well as the specific powers and duties of the Senate, Comitia, and various magistrates. This document is considered a sacred text, and deviation from it is an official act of treason. These are collectively known as the Corpus Iuris Tarquiniana, or Body of Taquinian Law.
Elected magistrates constitute the judiciary, and the central courts of the Dumani Republic fall under the umbrella of the Collegia Praetorum, or College of Praetors. This body consists of seven elected praetors overseeing courts dealing with specific aspects of the law, such as civil, criminal, or administrative cases.
Enforcement of the law is the ultimate duty of the consuls, who execute this duty via the military. The Milites Ordinatum, more commonly referred to as the Ordinators, are a branch of the Exercitus responsible for internal control and law enforcement, and serve as a national police force and criminal investigative body. The Ordinators are responsible for investigating crimes falling under the purview of the Collegia Praetorum, rather than local magistrates. Local police, or vigiles, fall under the authority of the various municipalities, and are responsible for dealing lower level criminals, such as burglars or vandals. The two forces frequently operate alongside one another in larger municipalities, with the Ordinators typically constituting a city's Urban Cohort.
Geographic administrative units at the local level consist of municipia. A municipium will typically consist of a medium or large-sized city, a small city and surrounding area, or a collection of villages and towns. These are governed by the local citizenry, who have a large degree of autonomy with regard to their affairs. The provincia, or province, is the largest administrative subdivision, containing multiple municipalities, and are administered directly by the government in Urbs Dumanus. Dumanum is divided into 13 provinces, the most recent being Sircacusa, with the city of Urbs Dumanus administered directly by the senate.
Foreign policy in Dumanum is set by the Senate and diplomacy is conducted by the Nuncios and the Collegia Nunciorum, with the Consuls supervising. Dumani foreign policy is broadly based upon a doctrine of controlling or rendering ineffective its neighbors, thereby preventing immediate external military or political threats to the Dumani state and permitting maximum freedom of action for the Senate. This can be seen in its prosecution of military campaigns and clandestine actions in Vekhistan, Motappaland, Sharfland, Yehud, and Sadari during the 20th and 21st centuries, with the former three becoming effective Dumani client states, and the later two kept in perpetual disarray. It also exercises active influence over significant portions of the Axackal Sea and Arterus via its control over Paralentum and its alliance with the Wolohannic Confederation. This policy is intended to keep regional rivals- notably, Sukaria, Questers, and Varnia off balance and in a reactive rather than proactive state.
Dumanum has maintained cordial relations with the Arteran states of Fanta and Tule since the mid-20th century, and has historically had economic and military ties with Tairendia and Hanseom. More recently, it has pursued a policy of diplomatic and military cooperation with Saratovia as a result of increasing Prekovar interference in western Crataea, the later of which has been considered a potential adversary since the early 1990s.
The Dumani military, or Exercitus, is responsible for the prosecution of wars outside of Dumani territory and the enforcement of law and order within Dumani territory. It is jointly commanded by the Consuls, with one overseeing foreign military action, and the later concerned with domestic law enforcement. It has waged numerous wars over the 20th and 21st centuries of both defensive and offensive natures, most recently annexing the territory of Siracusa during the West Axackal War and assisting the National Reconciliation Front in bringing the Sharfic Civil War to a favorable conclusion.
The Exercitus is a fully professional, all-volunteer force, with the reserve component being comprised of former active duty personnel who have been granted citizenship. Standard terms of enlistment are for 4 years, followed by 20 years of tiered reserve service. Officers are promoted from within the enlisted ranks and attend any one of a number of military academies, such as the Schola Bellorum in Aquae Tridentum. Current active duty strength, not counting forces of the Milites Ordinatum, is in excess of 1 million active duty troops. Troops of the Exercitus are drilled to a high standard of readiness, and significant expenditures are made toward fielding the most modern weapons and equipment. Consequently, Dumanum's high tech sector benefits significantly from military contracts. Service in the Exercitus is considered highly prestigious within Dumani society, and is often a springboard for professional or political careers.
The economy of Dumanum is primarily based in the electronics, high-technology equipment, aerospace, chemicals, mining, and steel industries. It is the 5th-largest in the world by GDP and the 16th-largest in the world by per capita GDP; it is the 2nd-largest economy in Crataea and the 2nd-wealthiest per capita after Tairendia. Dumanum's diversified free market economy is characterised by the presence of extremely large conglomerates which dominate large parts of the economy, a low-tax and regulation regime, and minimal government intervention. These conglomerates, known as gigantes (trans. giants), assert significant social and political power as well as economic. More than 50% of Dumanum's economic activity takes place in the Ostium and Dalantum regions, where a growing independent service industry thrives, and where most gigantes are headquartered. These developed and secure areas are considered the 'heart' of the Dumani economy, but other regions have been growing in economic importance since the beginning of the 20th-century.
The Dumani government places only economic regulations on public health and public security, but chooses not to regulate the way in which businesses otherwise manage their internal affairs. Taxes are relatively low; Dumani operates a regressive tax regime based around a 10% flat tax and a 7.5% and 15% sales tax; the remainder of government spending is financed by tariffs and a simplistic tax on alcohol and tobacco. Dumanum's personal tax law is very small, constituting only two pages and case law on what products have to be taxed. Ease of doing business is high in Dumanum, with social barriers constituting the major barrier to business.
Since the 1980s, Dumanum has experienced significant economic growth, the majority of which has been focused on the service industry. The majority of recent Dumani economic growth has occurred in the Ostium and Dalantum regions. Dumanum has significant trade with its regional partners, especially Sharfland and even Questers, but despite the lifting of trade barriers to Oswinite countries in the late 1970s, only a minority of Dumanum's trade goes to Wallasea or Varnia. Dumani conglomerates have major operations in Sharfland, Vekhistan, and Motappaland in particular.
Dumanum's currency is regulated by the Argentaria, the country's, and the world's oldest, central bank. The Argentaria maintains capital controls to achieve stable exchange rates while still retaining a sovereign monetary policy. It maintains a fiat currency (denarius vulgaris) for consumer spending and a restricted gold-backed currency (denarius solidus) for savings and investments. Possession and distribution of hard currency is regulated by foreign exchange controls and intrusive policing. This system is utilized to provide a degree of control over the economies of neighboring client states, whose central banks are beholden to the Argentaria.
Dumanum can be described as ethnically diverse but monocultural, with Antarterans comprising the nearly 60% of the population and nearly a dozen distinct Crataean ethnicities making up the rest of the populace. Despite the high degree of ethnic diversity, 90% of the population self-identified as being culturally Dumani as of the 2018 census. A strong tradition of cultural assimilation prevails, and prospective immigrants are expected to learn the Ostic language and fully conform to Dumani cultural norms within a year of their arrival or risk expulsion. Enforced cultural uniformity has resulted in a society with comparatively high degree of cohesion and low levels of ethnic tension.