|Commonwealth of Chevrokia
|Motto: "Frelsi er vert meir en gull"
(Chevrokian: Freedom is worth more than gold)
|Recognised regional languages||Fennish Sami|
|Government||Customary law commonwealth|
|•||Norse expansionism||c. 700 - 1150|
|•||Age of Revolution||1734 - 1760|
690,182 sq mi
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.sj (most common)|
Chevrokia (pronounced [ʃɛvrokiə], Chevrokian: Sjévrákia, Fennish: Ševrokia), often known abroad as the Commonwealth of Chevrokia (Chevrokian: Þjóðveldið Sjévrákia, Fennish: Ševrokia lihttostáhta), also known as the Chevrokian Free State, is a Wallasean country and collection of voluntarily-established associations. What could be considered its territory constitutes roughly 50 million people in an area of roughly 1,787,600 square kilometers (690,000 square miles). It is bordered on the east and southeast by Burgundie.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Law
- 4 Armed forces
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 Notes
According to the sagas written by Æiríkr Þorvaldsson in the 13th century CE, the first word known to have been used to refer to the land which is now Chevrokia is sjóvarríki. From Old Chevrokian, the first part, sjóvar, refers to something "by the sea." The second part, ríki, can mean either "kingdom" or "realm," and it is generally thought to have been the later. Literally, this translates to a "realm by the sea," as the earliest settlements were on the coast, or not too far inland. Corruption of the spelling, as well as the influence of the Latin alphabet (introduced by the first Christian missionaries in the area) transformed this into the modern Sjévrákia. Variations of this exist due to the multitude of dialects of the Chevrokian language (see Language). The Fennish language's equivalent form is Ševrokia. The English word Chevrokia is believed to be derived from Arentian forms, such as the Quiberonnais Chevroquie.
What is now Chevrokia is believed to have been inhabited by humans since at least 12,000 - 8,000 BCE. The ancestors to modern Chevrokians, the Proto-Norse speakers, began to emerge in the southern part of the country during the 3rd century CE, and began to form states of notable size, what are today deemed the petty kingdoms of Chevrokia, by the 8th century CE.
The petty kingdoms frequently came in conflict with each other and, as a result of improvements in nautical technology and weather during the Medieval Warm Period, with peoples elsewhere. Various Norse raiding parties frequently pillaged modern-day Praetonia and even as far away as Wolohanistan. The most consistent source of conflict was between the Norse Kingdom of Herjárdalr and the Praetannic Kingdom of Senland, and from 1058 until 1101, successive Herjárdalr sovereigns conquered Senland.
Norse-ruled Senland varied little in domestic policies as compared to previous rulers until the ascension of the young Harald II to the throne of Herjárdalr in 1088. Unrest caused by the heavy taxes levied by Harald II upon the subjects of all of his realms resulted in several revolts, and the Alþing under Eric the Lawspeaker (Eiríkr lögmaðr, also known as Eiríkr Þorbjörnsson) demanded taxes levied without prior agreement of the Alþing be stopped. Harald refused, triggering a lengthy domestic conflict throughout his realms, prompting neighboring states to take advantage of the weakness of his rule for territorial gain. Though he was able to make peace with Uppland and Álvádalr, resistance persisted in Senland, only ending in 1119 with Harald's death at the Battle of Flamborough. Harald's family line was disinherited from the throne of Herjárdalr, being passed instead to Tryggvi of Sefland.
In 1150, Tryggvi of Sefland persuaded the other petty kingdoms to agree in the creation of the Alþingi Sjóvarríkingum ("All-thing of the realms by the sea"), a body which contained representatives from each of the states. This created what is today known as the fyrst þjóðveldi ("first commonwealth"), a confederation of the Norse states in which a sovereign from one of the member states would be elected sovereign of the whole.
The period leading up to the 17th century saw further expansion of the Norse states, primarily to the north, into Fennish-populated areas. Additionally, Christianity was first introduced into Chevrokian lands in the early 15th century, and though efforts at wide-scale forcible conversion of the pagans was attempted, most of these were unsuccessful, and the adoption of Christianity by the majority of the populace was a gradual process.
Age of revolution
The Þing ("thing") is the traditional body of assembly in Chevrokia, and the most common form of legal association in the country. The primary purpose of a Þing, as with the things of Chevrokia since the time of antiquity, is to serve as a voluntary body for dispute resolution. The type of dispute which a particular assembly will deal with usually depends on the size and distribution of membership. It is possible for a Þing to consist of as few as a dozen members, serving a single village, or as many as several thousand members, serving much broader geographic areas. In addition to dispute resolutions, though, the larger assemblies often are major social events, and an assembly might be convened to give lectures or host debates on political matters, or to organize community service events.
The Þing is presided over by the lögmaður ("lawspeaker"), a person who is typically among the most senior members of the assembly, and who is considered to have a great knowledge of the customary law. In the large, formally-established Þings, the lawspeaker is appointed by a majority vote of the assembly, and serves until death, retirement, or vote of no confidence by a majority of the assembly. At the opening of a session of the more-established Þings, it is tradition for the lawspeaker to recite the laws of the land, specifically with regards to areas which respect the assembly's deliberation.
What could be considered a sort of government in Chevrokia would likely be the variation of the known as the Alþing, meaning "all-thing." Importantly, the term Alþing in modern Chevrokian use refers to any assembly which has a similar structure and conducts similar business. As a result, the formal name of a particular assembly will typically be denoted by the location where it meets or by the organization it serves; for instance, the Alþingi allra Sjévrákingum ("All-thing of all Chevrokians") is typically the largest, and is the formal name for the "national" assembly.
Structurally, the Alþing is divided up into two main bodies; the Löndsþing ("land-thing") and the Fólksþing ("people's thing"). Members of the Fólksþing are "elected" by petition by groups of individuals, while members of the Löndsþing are appointed by lesser assemblies who respect the deliberation of the larger. In both bodies, membership is approved on confirmation of a valid petition or appointment, which is typically done through the use of third-party notaries. In most cases, there are no term limits for members of the assembly, though members may be removed from the assembly in the event of a withdrawal of petition for a member, proof of a breach of contract, or the death of the member.
Alþingi allra Sjévrákingum
As mentioned, the Alþingi allra Sjévrákingum (AaS) is an assembly which generally serves interests from across Chevrokia. The biggest difference between it and lesser assemblies is that it primarily deals with dispute resolutions involving foreign polities or threats against the whole of the nation; specifically, this consists of the raising and maintaining of armed forces to protect Chevrokia against invasion, which in practice involves temporary unification of the various private security and militia forces maintained by lesser organizations with large amounts of the professional forces funded and maintained by the AaS itself. In this respect, it is similar in several ways with foreign associations such as the Estates-General of Praetonia and the Freeholders Confederation of Questers.
The modern Chevrokian concept of the law derives from Norse legal systems which arose from the early Norse societies just prior to and during the age of the petty kingdoms. Although many changes have occurred since then, the basic structure of the law remains. The Þing assemblies, in their capacity as courts, hear cases, call witnesses, and examine evidence to determine whether the accused is guilty.
Except for interruptions during the late 17th and much of the 18th century, typically only two sentences have existed for criminal offenses in Chevrokia: fines and outlawry. In occasional extreme cases the death sentence has been applied, but the most common sentence historically has been fines.
In addition to the customary law, there are various types of associations in Chevrokia which can have their own internal legal systems. These can include: business associations, which may consist of several businesses in a particular industry; professional associations, which consist of persons employed in a particular profession; and others.
The nature of subdivisions in Chevrokia, as with other aspects which relate to the idea of governance in other countries, is much more vaguely-defined than elsewhere. Even cities, towns, and villages are not firmly established entities, as throughout history urban areas have consolidated into single polities as well as split apart into smaller ones. In modern Chevrokia, the following terms for different size political associations are known to be in use, from largest to smallest with closest English equivalent names:
- Þjóðveldi - Commonwealth/free state (as a whole)
- Landsfjórðungur - Farthing (quarter)
- Sýslar - County
- Hreppur - Rural area/region/district
- Kaupstaðir - Independent town/city state/township
- Bærir, Borgar, and Staður - City/town
- Bærsfjórðungur/Borgsfjórðungur/Staðsfjórðungur - City/town quarter
- Bærirhluti/Borgarhluti/Staðurhluti, Hverfi - City/town district
- Grennd - Neighborhood
- Þorp - Village
Generally speaking, each size of political association has at least one Alþing or other form of legal association representing the whole, and represents the interests of those associations below it. For instance, the definition of the Commonwealth itself is the geographical area containing all the farthings which respect the deliberation of the Alþingi allra Sjévrákingum, while the definition of a farthing is the geographical area containing all the counties which respect the deliberation of the relevant Fjórðungsþingar (farthing assembly), and so on. The rate at which political associations are created, combined, or disbanded is generally considered to be inversely proportional to their size. Additionally, lesser political associations may change which greater association(s) they affiliate with.
The Alþingi allra Sjévrákingum maintains standing forces for the security of the coasts and borders of Chevrokia, which are funded through private investments from a number of sources, including directly from individuals, businesses, and increasingly from insurance companies. The two main forces raised and maintained by the AaS are; the Þjóðveldi sjóherinn ("Commonwealth Navy"), formally known as the Sjóherinn af þjóðveldið allra fólk og félög af Sjévrákia ("Navy of the Commonwealth of all the People and Associations of Chevrokia"); and the Þjóðveldi herir ("Commonwealth Army").
However, the bulk of all of the armed forces in Chevrokia consist of other private security forces as well as volunteer militias, both professional and irregular, raised at lower levels. Their primary purpose is to aid in the enforcement of laws and the apprehension of criminals, however under conditions of war the various militias may be placed under a central authority of the AaS for the duration of the war.
Chevrokia lies on the northwestern tip of the region of Wallasea, on the continent NAME. It would be bounded almost perfectly by a square area which is roughly 1,900 kilometers (1,180 miles) long on each side. and The coasts of the southeast and northeast are relatively smooth, however other coastal areas of Chevrokia are relatively rugged, with the coasts of the western regions being the most rugged, broken by large fjords and numerous small islands.
With the exception of the mild plains and hills of the southeast and the subarctic plains of the northeast, much of Chevrokia is dominated by mountainous or high terrain. The major mountain ranges include the Stapafjöll on the south, the Grænfjöll in the west, and the NAME in the north, the last of which contains the highest mountains in Chevrokia. These mountains contain numerous natural features carved out by glacial activity during the last glacial maximum. In addition, the vast subarctic plains of the northeast have been determined to have been the result of glacial activity.
The land of Chevrokia is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone, and limestone are also common, and low elevation regions near the sea contain marine deposits. In some areas of the north and northeast, particularly in the highlands around the mountains, permafrost exists year-round. Though southern Chevrokia has been experiencing a very slow rise in sea level during the records of roughly the last 200 years, the reverse is happening in northern Chevrokia, as a result of the still-continuing post-glacial rebound.
The southern and western coastal areas of Chevrokia experience relatively mild oceanic climates. Much of the interior of the southern two-thirds of the country experiences continental climates, with significant swings in temperature and weather throughout the year. The remaining third of the country in the north experiences subarctic cliamtes, with some areas of extreme subarctic climates.
Because of Chevrokia's high latitude, there are wide changes in the amount of daylight throughout the year. From late May to late July, much of the country can experience up to 20 hours of daylight. The reverse is true in winter, when there may be as few as four hours of daylight. Because of this, Chevrokia is believed to have higher rates of mental health problems such as seasonal affective disorder than other Wallasean countries.
The modern Chevrokian economy is completely lacking in government regulatory controls due to the absence of a government, resulting in a situation of market anarchism. Major agricultural products of Chevrokia include crops such as barley, wheat and potatoes; livestock products such as pork, beef, veal, and milk; and seafood products such as cod, halibut, and whale products. Except for fishing activities which are more evenly spread throughout the country, the majority of the agricultural activities happen in the south, where the climate and terrain is more suitable to large-scale agriculture. Major manufacturing industries of Chevrokia include aviation, automotive, mining and metal production, petroleum products, and shipbuilding. Most of the production of finished goods occurs in the south and west of the country, while production of raw materials can be found throughout the country.
Because of the absence of a state in Chevrokia today, there is no central bank and there is no monopoly currency; purchases and payment of debts can be done through any means agreed to by both parties. As a result, there are many different competing, privately-issued currencies in use in the country. Currencies with full reserves of commodities for backing (such as gold or silver) are the most common in use due to long-term stability, but other types can be found in use throughout the country.
Generally, education in Chevrokia can be organized in four categories: playschool (leikskóli), primary school (grunnskóli), secondary school (framhaldsskóli), and post-secondary school (háskóli). Schools can also be categorized into secular- and religious-based, single-gender or mixed-gender, and many others. Policies for everything related to the school are set by the school themselves, or by "education associations" which can serve as voluntary regulatory bodies.
The largest fraction (estimated 33% as of 2008) of electrical power generation in Chevrokia comes from nuclear power plants. Of these, the majority are plants using conventional pressurized water reactors (PWRs), with smaller amounts of boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The second largest source of Chevrokian electrical power generation comes from hydroelectric dams. Hydropower stations are most common in mountainous parts of Chevrokia, particularly in the south and west. Until as recently as 1995, hydroelectric generation was the largest source of electical energy in Chevrokia, but the smaller land area required for the construction of nuclear plants became attactive for many power companies. Smaller amounts of electricity generation come from gas turbine power plants burning various hydrocarbon and other fuels, coal-fired power plants, geothermal sources, and newer energy sources such as solar cells and wind turbines.
As with other aspects of the Chevrokian economy, the lack of a government means that the transportation industry in Chevrokia is entirely under private control. Because of this, an important distinction must be made with regards to transport in Chevrokia: while mass transportation in the sense of transportation of the movement of large groups of people at once does exist, public trasportation does not exist. Regulation of the industry, in place of government regulatory agencies as exist in other countries, is done through voluntarily-established business associations, as well as consumer advocacy groups.
Rail transport is still the least expensive method of long distance transport in Chevrokia, using well-established and typically well-maintained rail lines. Due to low costs, it is especially preferred for heavy transport of items which are not time-critical. The most common types of long-distance passenger trains in use in Chevrokia are hybrid gas turbine-/diesel-electric multiple unit trains. The split between multiple unit trains and locomotive trains is roughly 50-50, however the number of locomotive type trains (especially for passenger service) has been decreasing significantly in recent years, primarily due to lower energy efficiency. Due to reduced investment in rail infrastructure from the 1970s until the 1990s, the majority of electrified lines, and thus full electric trains, are found only in urban areas, with a few inter-city electric lines in operation in southern Chevrokia. The 1,435 mm standard gauge track is the most common in use in Chevrokia, though in mountainous and urban areas the smaller metre gauge is prevalent.
Though the original population of what is today Chevrokia were of Finnic origin, today the dominant population group are the Norse, who originated from central Wallasea during roughly the 1st millennium BCE. Though some studies suggest perhaps 85-90% of Chevrokians claim Norse ancestry, genetic analysis has shown that a notable portion of those in the north are at least partly of Finnic decent. Historically, this is explained due to many Norse soldiers and male settlers taking Fennish Sami women as brides during the 12th-16th century conquest of the north. The Fenns themselves are estimated to make up 5-10% of the population, with the remainder primarily composed of NAME, NAME, and other Wallasean nationalities.
The dominant language of the land, Chevrokian (sjévrákiska), is a North Germanic language, loosely related to the NAME and NAME language groups of Wallasea. However, compared to those languages the Chevrokian language has had much less influence from the Arentian language groups such as Quiberonnais, and aside from the adoption of the Arentian alphabet, there are only relatively small differences between the modern language and "Old Chevrokian" of 1,000 years ago. The Chevrokian language is estimated to be spoken by nearly all of the Norse population, and perhaps some other inhabitants, and by some studies is spoken by 90-95% of the population. The largest language spoken by the remainder of the population is the Fennish language, with smaller amounts of other languages such as Praetannic and NAME.
a bunch of awful herring placeholders
Though writings and carvings on cave walls and rocks as old as 5000-4000 BCE have been discovered, the earliest modern literature in Chevrokia is believed to be from the 12th and 13th centuries CE. What is known as the saga (plural sögur), written collections of oral traditions, began to be written about this time, still in the old Runic alphabet. Sagas were written about both real events and persons, as well as mythical events and deities. Sagas in the traditional style were written past the Christianization, though changing to the Arentian alphabet, until largely fading from popular literature during the early 17th century. A brief resurgance of the saga came in the middle and late 18th century, coinciding with the Revolutions and the time afterwards.
By most estimates, the most popular sport in Chevrokia, with regards to both professional games and recreational activity, is association football (knattspyrna or fótbolti). Other games such as handball (handbolti) and ice hockey (íshokki) are also very popular in Chevrokia.